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GEOL 306 Volcanoes & Earthquake

by: Paisley Moses

GEOL 306 Volcanoes & Earthquake 26033

Marketplace > University of Oregon > 26033 > GEOL 306 Volcanoes Earthquake
Paisley Moses
GPA 2.9

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I know lectures can be a little hard to follow! So in case anyone needs help getting clarified notes, I'm here to share mine. Hope this helps everyone out a little!
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paisley Moses on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 26033 at University of Oregon taught by in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views.


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Date Created: 02/18/15
Seismonology Waves and Faults Concept of waves and rays Ban1 Wavaa 3E4 m3 explosion in the Pramn underground or Elma underwater lass Emincated in a single and spreads be 43 error in Waves carry one barely feel an effect due to the volume of the cube 0 Surface waves travel through the ocean like a bathtub the Surface wavaa ll center ahadlaiw point Should a picture megatone Beam atquot I39ajgt Wave paaaaa thlf ugh a I 39 W halt enegry of the wave is pie r squared Enegry perpegates more Surface waves carry enegry longer and do not extinguish Concept of Shadown no shaking in shadow P and S waves Body Waves Primary and Secondary S wave is the same kind of motion as a ball up and w y H down movement a quotquotgijifl fillyfigFifi3393ijif j fill if f Pa rticales x a m win 9 up H i H a nd down sizemic H Jquot h I if Illi39l illtl ml rquotfie iiiu Ilni I in i quotv A d I ma ln iii HE jE39Ili Iquot riliilniii deformation 3 Pwaves t 39 la ial travel waves because of the direction of particle motion WAVE REFLECTION refraction Critical angle of refraction leranri Hamil Ilfi til39giifll quot faster than S Basic physics re ection is easiest You can project an identical angle Use Snell s Law which tells you how to compute velocity and angle Waves always chose the fastest t it i ii 1 ti i quotll Exlrlv lj l 1 a t 1 C I u a i 1quot r i q n t l a 139 mm UD in 1 H u H n rlllllllllllllll1Hi i J n l a l n a u r n l u J a J quot 1 H i If c a an nn n u H ili i39i 7 lilllllillllll a 1L My 1 Him ll F i i l n l l i i l i D quot a r a ii an n H u H a r W a i g H l i i ll 7 ii quotu lam fquot N D hu39lnii all all 5U all all at J h H 392 31 J fh u E 5 r s r r s r r r r r a in Iu nilial39u H H 39 C H n u r H H I l n i Mllllmwgm iii 31x3 lahefsitfnllm nr um H H Wv 7a 39 H x quot 3 quot 39g V J i quotEr1 Flaml qi Rui im pathway they minimize the amount of time spend in slow material and maximize the faster material quotWaves are smart they always know where to goquot Waves in Different Media 0 Sound Wave compression of the air 0 Water waves compression and surface waves 0 Waves through the solid compression shear surface Gas or liquid cannot be shared wavelength 1 cycle and amplitude how high the wave goes there is also frequencies130 Hz 1 Hz is 1 signal wavecrest per second Wavelength is 1 frequency P and S waves 130 Hz or vibration per second Surface waves have longer periods mm Build in 1887 at Berkeley suspended pen and a piece of paper attached to the ground A Heavy weigh suspended from a wire attached to a rigid column that is rmly attached to the anchored plate on the ground Measuring horizontal motion and vertical motion Modern seismographs use digital controls and GPS need to measure time percisely Surface Wave travel directions Earthquakes are generally low frequencies we feel it long before we hear it Speeds Light 300000 kms fastest possible Sound through the air 033 kms P waves Mantle 8 kms crust 56 kms due to different rocks S waves Mantle45 kms crust 35 kms Surface waves 34 kms BUT most dangerous They cause the strongest motion of the surface S Waves and LiquidsMelts Swaves do not propagate through liquids Reason Water and other liquids can t be sheared Etreee w in the This is important for imaging liquid objects Ea h eg magma chambers h fi e So what causes earthquakes Enli l y Elastic Brittle deformation and release of waves Brittle vs Ductile deformation Elastic reaches a limit before it breaks off Emile WW There are four types of faults Elam Normal Fault mm Pgiami quot J Reverse Fault lefmmaimn Thrust Fault very shallow l ifffffflblfl Right Lateral StrikeSlip Fault similar to the ocean line It doesn t matter which egfr g n type of fault it is if it reveirefblej39 reaches it s breaking point I it could cause an Strain earthquake Recognizing Displacements and past earthquakes If you wait maybe 10 or 15 years you will not be able to tell which kind of earthquake took place How to record the movements of an earthquake and how much stress is accumulated It s good to make predictions and see when or where earthquakes may take place Urban areas way more difficult to predict upon Tetei fleet ei ter feult elip EF S Sl ll l s 39 Layers of rock on both lBefere eiip sides of the fault Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 youngest least offset Layer 2 intermediate in age and offset Layer 1 Oldest greatest offset Feult Peetelip eellid line 21815 Main points of the Previous Lecture Earthquakes are related to quotFaultsquot Faults characterize different plate boundaries Earthquakes propagate as waves There are 2 types of waves quotBody wavesquot and quotSurface wavesquot Waves propagate with different speeds They loose energy differently Surface Waves You can make these surface waves on your free surface Seismogenixc zone 0 Brittleductile transition in the crust Rock cracking limits Shallowing faults roots of faults ln seismogenic there upper layers are the only ones that are brittle like an egg Only part of the earth is the outer shell lithosphere Depth distribution of earthquakes and their magnitude How Earthquake Ruptures are formed An earthquake occurs on a fault It starts at a point and radiates out The point where it starts is called the focus The point above the focus on the surface of the Earth is called the epicenter the epicenter is as close as we can get to an earthquake Now a new topic outline Wave propagation through different media Waves re ection refraction Traveltime curves Scales to measure Earthquakes Mercalli scale Richter scale Moment magnitude Earthquakes on different grounds damage by earthquakes Note P waves are fastest and smallest Surface waves are slowest and largest On the waves and rays Waves are what nature does Rays are very useful conceptual devices Rays follow a bit of energy on the wave front stay perpendicular to the wave front take a leasttime path from source to wave front Three scales to measure Earthquakes Mercalli 1902 Qualitative how people feel Richter 1935 Instrumental how seismograph feels Moment and Seismic Energy quantitative but parameters uncertain Gutenberg and Richter 19505 Liquefaction of soils will cause building to collapse 0 As a P wave or an S wave propagates away from an earthquake lt spreads out over more and more area These figures show how at twice the distance the wavefront covers four times the area and hence has 14 of the energy per square unit At 3 times the distance the wavefront covers 9 times the area The energy is then down 19 the energy per square unit An equation that describes this behavior is E 1d2 where E is the energy and d is the distance away from the earthquake


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