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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brylan Donaldson on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 104 at Kansas taught by David Holmes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Lectures notes?? Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Brylan Donaldson Psychology Chapter 6 1 What is the nature of motivation a Motivation is what drives and directs our behaviors b What is the process behind motivation i Drivereduction explanation we act to satisfy those drives and reduce tension ii Homeostatic explanation we are motivated to behave in ways that achieve our optimal levels of arousal iii Incentive explanation we are motivated by the desire to achieve or attain pleasure or goals iv Who is Abraham Maslow 1 A psychologist that suggested that motives can be organized into a hierarchy of needs 2 What is the nature of hunger a What are physiological factors that in uence hunger i Metabolism the process in which the cells in your body produce and use energy ii Glucose the energy source for cells involved in metabolism 1 Lateral hypothalamus signals fullness and the ventromedial hypothalamus signals hunger iii Fat cells and leptin glucose is delivered to fat cells and stored When the cells become full they began to release leptin which reduces hunger iv Genetics 70 of weight variability is contributed to genetics b What psychological and cultural factors that in uence hunger i Stress can lead to lower levels of serotonin which is related to hunger ii Cultural differences in hunger dieting and exercise in uence hunger and health iii Obesity is considered over 30 BMI 1 BMI is calculated by taking the product of your weight and 705 then dividing it by your height in inches then dividing it by your height in inches again iv Low metabolism can contribute to obesity Phentermine is a drug that is used as a treatment v Low levels of serotonin can lead to increase appetite Fen uramine is the drug used as a treatment It has been known to cause many problems such as primary pulmonary hypertension brain damage and heart valves damage vi Satiety being satisfied or full c What is anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa i ii iii Anorexia the refusal to maintain an appropriate body weight Bulimia eating large amounts in short periods of time What are explanation to anorexia and bulimia 1 Psychological explanation individuals are dealing With meeting cultural standards or defining beauty Also classical conditioning may play a role 2 Physiological explanation there is problem With the hypothalamus a Lesions in the hypothalamus b Low levels of serotonin c Genetics 3 What is the nature of sex a What is the arousal process i ii iii iv The hypothalamus is stimulated and releases a hormone Hormone stimulates the pituitary gland and PG releases gonadotropins Gonadotropins stimulate the gonads Gonads release estrogen or testosterone b Clitoris penis like structure that is located above the vaginal opening c What are the three sexual disorders 1 ii iii Desire disorder lack of interest in sex due to low levels of hormones Differences in hormones stems from genetics or stress Counseling and hormone shots are used as treatments Arousal disorder the inability to achieve or the lack of arousal This is due to anxiety or lack of blood ow to the area Orgasm disorder the inability to have or having an orgasm too soon d What are paraphilias C 1 ii iii iv vi vii viii ix x xi Peculiar ways to achieve sexual arousal Misconnections and classical conditioning contribute to paraphilias Autoerotic asphyxiation achieving sexual gratification through hanging oneself Exhibitionism exposing oneself to a stranger Fetishism the use of nonhuman things to achieve sexual arousal Transvestic fetishism dressing in the opposite s sex clothing Frotteurism rubbing up against a nonconsenting individual to achieve sexual gratification Pedophilia sexual acts With children Sexual masochism sexual gratification from harm being done on them Sexual sadism sexual gratification from doing harm Voyeurism peeping Tom Aversive therapy has been used to help With misconnections Also depo provera is a drug used to treat paraphilias What is gender identity disorder i An individual feels like members of the opposite sex and less comfortable With own sex It is caused by exposure to crosssex hormones during prenatal stages f What is homosexuality i Homosexuality is When an individual likes someone of the same sex ii Genetics play a huge role in homosexuality iii Homosexuality is also due factors Within the brain in relation to the hypothalamus and neurons Chapter 7 1 What is emotion and why do we experience it a Emotion is a combination of thoughts and arousal i Cognitive explanation emotions stem from how we interpret the things around us and our physiological arousal 1 J amesLange theory of emotion our interpretations of our emotions lead to our behaviors 2 CannonB ard theory The idea that what we think and our physiological arousal contribute to our emotions 3 SchachterSinger explanation we use the events around us to suggest that the arousal we are feeling is fear 4 Physiological explanation emotions are caused by changes within the brain and are not related to environmental events or situations b What role does the nervous system play in emotions i The amygdala is the structure within the brain that deals with emotions It is stimulated and interprets the information then stimulates the brain elsewhere ii The prefrontal cortex helps link emotions to thoughts and behaviors iii The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system sends impulses from the brain to various organs throughout the body 1 Guilty knowledge test a test in which an individual is asked questions in which only the guilty individual would know 2 Emotions are not under voluntary control c What role does sociocultural factors play in emotions i There is a similarity of emotions across cultures Emotions of one culture can be recognized by other cultures ii There are cultural rules that govern which emotions are acceptable for a given situation iii Emotions expressed by women tend to be more inner directed as opposed to men whose emotions tend to be more outer directed iv How one interprets an event will in uence their emotions v Differences in physiological arousal can lead to differences in emotionality vi Empathy the ability to be aware and recognize the emotions of another human being 1 Individuals must have experienced the emotions themselves first 2 What is passionate love a Love is a complex state that is made of different components i Intimacy emotional closeness ii Passion romantic and sexual arousal iii Decisioncommitment the decision that we love that person and that we will do whatever it takes to maintain the relationship b What are some explanations for mistakes in relation to passion i A person made a mistake about their feelings An individual has mislabeled a feeling 1 2 Gruesome experiences can lead to more romantic feelings Playing footsies secretly leads to greater attraction ii Classical conditioning and generalizations play a huge role in passion 3 What is stress and its impact on human beings a Stress the emotion that is felt when one is taxed beyond their normal limits i Stress is made of two components cognitive and physiological ii Stressor the thing that is causing the stress b What are the steps that lead to stress i Awareness of the stressor ii Attempting to cope with the stressor If one does not get rid of the stressor then the stressor continues to exist iii Stress iv Use of defense mechanisms to deal with stress 1 3 4 5 Denial redefinition Redefining the stressor to make it less stressful It is effective for lessening stress but does nothing to help solve the problem Displacement expressing emotions toward an individual other than the individual that caused the emotion Suppression intentionally not thinking about the stressor Repression Sends the memory of the stressor to the unconscious Procrastination the tendency to put off something for a later date v What other factors help control stress 1 2 3 4 Social support counseling and psychotherapy Writing about stress helps lower stress Aerobic exercise helps reduce stress Meditation and biofeedback do not work for controlling stress although they are believed to Genetics factors can lead to an individual experiencing more stressors vi Stress and the brain 1 When under high levels of stress the adrenal gland releases cortisol which had good and bad effects Cortisol helps provide individuals with the energy they need however it can temporarily impair memory destroy the hippocampus and prolong the stress 4 What is the role of psychological factors in relation to physical health It was originally believed that our minds and bodies were independent of each other known as mindbody dualism Psychosomatic disorders disorders that stem from psychological problems What is the in uence of behavior and stress on physical health i Maladaptive behavior and stress can cause serious health issues for a individuals ii iii iv vi vii viii ix Cardiovascular system consists of the heart blood vessels and the lungs 1 Coronary artery disease the build of cholesterol in the arteries a Cholesterol helps build tissues and is distributed to cells to help maintain them b Atherosclerosis 2 Myocardial infarction heart attack 3 Cerebral infarction stroke What is type A and type B behavior 1 Type A an intense approach to life They are more likely to develop heart problems a Made up of competitiveness time urgency and hostility 2 Type B a relaxed approach to life Stress leads to increase in the production of cholesterol Stress leads to greater clotting of cholesterol Stress leads to higher heart rates Stress leads to high blood pressure What are treatments for physical problems in relation to stress 1 Coronary bypass surgery blocked part of the artery is removed and replaced With a new artery to create a new route 2 Angioplasty the insertion of a balloon to help create a larger opening Within the artery 3 Change in lifestyle 4 Having a positive attitude What is blood pressure 1 Systolic pressure the pressure that occurs after each beat of the heart 2 Diastolic pressure the pressure that occurs once the blood has been distributed 3 Baroreceptors Within the arteries monitor your blood pressure 4 Hypertension high blood pressure is 140 over 90 Immunological disorders 1 Antigens disease causing agents germs 2 Leukocytes White blood cells that help fight off antigens 3 Stress suppresses the function of the immune system
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