Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Introduction to Biological Anthropology
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ANTH 270 Chapter One Vocabulary 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Savanna A large at grassland with scattered trees and shrubs Savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry and warm to hot climates Hominins Colloquial term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and now extinct bipedal relatives Species A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species Bipedally On two feet walking habitually on two legs Anthropology The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology includes cultural anthropology archeology linguistics and physical anthropology Primates Members of the mammalian order Primates which includes lemurs lorises tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Evolution A change in the genetic structure of a population The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species Adaptation An anatomical physical or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment Adaptations result from evolutionary change specifically as a result of natural selection Genetic Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring Genetic mechanisms are the foundation of evolutionary change Behavior Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli the response of an individual group or species to its environment Such response may or may not be deliberate and they aren t necessarily the result of conscious decision making which is absent in single celled organisms insects and many other species Continuum A set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum for example color All life re ects a single biological continuum Culture Behavioral aspects of human adaptations including technology traditions language religion marriage patterns and social roles Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by non biological means WorldvieW General cultural orientation or perspective shared by the members of a society Biocultural Evolution The mutual interactive evolution of human biology and culture the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further in uences the direction of biological evolution this is a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution Applied Anthropology The practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques Ethnographies Detailed descriptive studies of human societies In cultural anthropology 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non Western society Artifacts Objects or materials made or modi ed for use by hominins The earliest artifacts are usually tools made of stone or occasionally bone Paleoanthropology The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins their chronology physical structure archaeological remains etc Primate Paleontology The study of fossil primates especially those that lived before the appearance of hominins DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid The double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code DNA is a main component of chromosomes Osteology The study of skeletal material Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of skeletal remains from archaeological sites skeletal anatomy bone physiology and growth and development Some of the same techniques are used in paleoanthropology to study early hominins Bioarcheology The study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites Paleopathlogy The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal or occasionally mummified remains from archaeological sites Forensic Anthropology An applied anthropology approach dealing with legal matters Forensic anthropologists work with coroners and others in identifying and analyzing remains Primatology The study of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates Science A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation Hypotheses A provisional explanation of a phenomenon Hypotheses require verification through testing Empirical Relying on experiment or observation Scientific Method An approach to research whereby a problem is identified a hypothesis is stated and is tested by collecting and analyzing data Data Facts from which conclusions can be drawn scientific information Quantitatively Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such properties as size number and capacity When data are quanti ed they re expressed numerically and can be tested statistically Theory A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses Scientific Testing The precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification the procedure by which hypotheses and theories are verified modified or discarded Quadrupedal Using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion basic mammalian mode of locomotion Ethnocentric Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one s own culture Ethnocentrism often causes other cultures to be seen as inferior 36 RelatiVistic Viewing entities as they relate to something else Cultural relativism is the View that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts ANTH 270 Chapter Two Vocabulary 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 Natural Selection The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change first described by Charles Darwin the term refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals Fixity of Species The notion that species once created can never change This is diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution Paradigm Shift A transition from one conceptual framework or prevailing and widely accepted viewpoint to another Reproductively Isolated Pertaining to groups of organisms that mainly because of genetic differences are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other such groups Binomial Nomenclature In taxonomy the convention established by Carolus Cinnareus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to living things Taxonomy The branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships Catastrophism The view that the earth s geological landscape is the result of violent events Uniformitarianism The theory that the earth s features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present just as they did in the past Elaborated on by Lyell this theory opposed catastrophism and greatly contributed to the concept of immense geological time Fitness Pertaining to natural selection a measure of the relative reproductive success of individuals Fitness can be measured by an individuals genetic contribution to the next generation when compared with that of other individuals Reproductive Success The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age or an individual s genetic contribution to the next generation Selective Pressures Forces in the environment that in uence reproductive success in individuals Fertility The ability to conceive and produce healthy offspring Genome The entire genetic makeup on an individual or species Biological Continuity A biological continuum When expressions of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories they create a continuum Color is one such phenomenon and life forms are another Christian Fundamentalists Adherents to a movement in American Protestantism that began in the early 20th century This group holds that the teachings of the Bible are infallible and should be taken literally ANTH 270 Lecture One Introduction to Biological Anthropology 1 Anthropology a Cultural Anthropology b Linguistic Anthropology c Archaeology d Biological Anthropology i Human Origins and Evolution Contemporary Human Biological Variation Interdisciplinary Approaches 1 Applied Anthropology 2 Biocultural Anthropology 2 Scientific Method a Hypothesis b Collect Data c Test hypothesis d May become theory 3 A Brief History of Science a Geocentric view of the universe i The earth is center of universe everything revolves around earth b Young age of the earth i Creation is exactly as described in Genesis James Ussher 15811656 calculated earth began in 4004 BC c Everything in nature is static i Everything remained just as it was created because the creator was perfect PQ Landscapes were in the same place and same form No species could be added or removed d Fixity of Species i Plato s theory of types Average was important in God s eye variation was imperfect representation The Great Chain of Being Scala Naturae 1 Divinely inspired hierarchy unchanging e The 17th Century i Heliocentric model Galileo Galilei 15641642 Rise of scientific method Isaac Newton Francis Bacon f 17th and 18th Century Geology i Development of Stratiagraphy 1 Nicolas Steno 16381686 2 Wilham Strata Smith 17691839 Stratagraphic Interpretations 1 Catastrophism a Nicholas Steno 16381686 b Robert Hooke 16351703 c George Cuvier 17691832 2 Uniformitarianism a Added concept of TIME b James Hutton 17261797 c Charles Lyell 1797 1875 GeorgesLouis Leclerc Comte de Buffon 17071788 i Recognized relationship between external environment and living forms change was possible 5 Biogeography Animals migrated to new environments and were changed by climate 0 3 Questioned young earth iv Mentioned common ancestor of apes and humans George Cuvier 17691832 i French naturalist father of vertebrate paleontology Proposed idea of extinction 1 Still believed in fixity of species a Modern animals not related to extinct animals Charles Lyell 17971875 i Scottish geologist founder of modern geology F1 Popularized Uniformitarianism and old earth theory Thomas Malthus 17661834 239 17 Emz 071 7726 P7z39mz39be 0fP0pzcz2 z3907 1798 t English economist and demographer 1 Human population size cannot increase forever due to limited food source iv Constant competition for resources control populations Jean Baptiste Lemarck 17441829 1 French naturalist tried to explain evolution K Species evolved due to environment Simple organisms evolved spontaneously complex came from simple iv Inheritance of acquired characteristics Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Theory of use and disuse of parts i Animal tries to perfect itself B Used organs would be more developed P Increased development would be inherited by offspring m Charles Darwin 18091882 1 Studied medicine and theology more a naturalist X Naturalist on HMS Beagle wb Noted biological and physical environment variation iv Fossils might represent ancestors of living beings v Darwin s Finches 1 Finches all from common ancestor modi ed over time to suit environment and dietary preferences vi Main contributions 1 Mechanism for evolution Natural Selection 2 Common Descent 3 Elimination of typological view of nature 4 Explained Linnaeus classification system n Alfred Russel Wallace 18231913 i Co discoverer of natural selection N Discovered idea under malarial fever 7 Wrote Darwin in 1858 o The Theory of Natural Selection i Darwin 1842 hK Influenced by Thomas Malthus and Charles Lyell K Survival of the fittest Herbert Spencer 29 O71 TJe Ongi offpeczav 1859 p Natural Selection i Production of variation random G Selection of variation not random 6 Modi cation Transformation of what already exists iv All species are capable of producing offspring faster than food supply increases v There is biological variation in all species vi There is a struggle for existence competition vii Possession of favorable variations is advantage q Darwin s Evidence i Experimental dog breeding Biogeographic animals distribution around world Geology and Paleontology fossils old earth iv Comparative Anatomy 1 Homologous traits 2 Vestigial structures 3 Comparative embryology V COULD NOT explain HOW traits were inherited
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