COMM1025- Chapter 4
COMM1025- Chapter 4 Comm1025
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Grassie on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Comm1025 at George Washington University taught by Jean Costanza Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications in Communication at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Language 21915 1206 PM Language 0 Rule governed symbol systemquot 0 Relationship of words to things is arbitrary and conventional 0 conventional based on decisions made in the past things that are socially agreeable o symbol v sign smoke is a sign of fire 0 college slang 0 social identity function 0 giving you a way to talk more and with a nuance about things that are relevant to you 0 have different rules who to use it with context regional nature of slang Subsystems of language 0 Language is a system 0 Allows us to generate meaning 0 Rule governed Can t use it however we feel like 0 Subsystems o phonology Language consists of meaningful sounds a Groan sneeze laugh 0 Semantics Word meanings o Syntactics Sentence structure word order 0 Pragmatics language use in specific contexts for specific purposes Speech Act Theory 0 Theorist john Searle based on Austin and Wittgenstein 0 Speech act 0 Basic unit of language to express intentionmeaning o Utterance that expresses intention Examples o The exam is worth 25 Encouraging you to study Do you have a watch Act being performed could be requesting to know the time 0 I m sorry you re not feeling well Expressing an emotional state 0 You re hired Employing someone What has to be true for each of these statements to be understood as intended o Context 5 types of illocutionary acts 0 Assertives Convey belief that a proposition is true a The global climate is changing o Directives Attempt to get the listener to do something a Can you tell me what time it is Go away 0 Commissives Commit the speaker to a future course of action a I promise I ll be there I I ll pay you back a Threats o Expressives Convey the speaker s psychological state a Thanks for the ride welcome congratulate 0 Declarations Bring about a new state a I sentence you to five years in prison a Getting married How do we know what to do or what to say 0 Coordinated Management of Meaning Follow rules Examine Context 0 Interaction negotiating meanings making sense and responding cocreating meaning Sounds like social constructionist Coordinated Management of Meaning CMM o In order to understand what s going on and what the other person means how to interpret correctly you need to look at the context multiple levels 0 Context Speech act Episode I What kind of interaction is this date Relationship a Are we friends Lovers Life scriptsense of self a How often does things like this occur Is this typical Cultural patterns a Are there cultural norms that indicate why this is happening 0 To correctly understand and interpret a message you need to consider all these things and use them to decode the message 0 Constitutive rules 0 What counts as what 0 What makes a promise count as a promise Sincerity Regulative rules 0 Guidelines for behavior 0 What is the appropriate behavior or response in this situation Types of people 0 Detour taker 0 key word distracts them 0 Complainer o complain about everything Inactive responder 0 person who listens blankly interrogator o asks incessant questions Egotist o Focused on themselves 0 The arguer o The thought completer The selfdisclosure o TMI The adviser 0 Person who s always telling you what to do The psychiatrist o The person who analyzes you Cooperative principle Grice 0 We assume people are cooperative in conversation and we make sense of their statements accordingly 0 Make sense of what people are saying by assuming they re engaging in the conversation somehow o If you re in an argument with someone it can only be cooperative if they are arguing back at you if they re dismissive or just start agreeing then that s uncooperative 4 maxims of conversation 0 Quantity Provide enough information but not more than needed Don t talk too much or too little 0 Quality Be honest don t commit to positions you can t support 0 Relation Be relevant on topic 0 Manner Be clear don t be obscure be clear and straightforward o How do we break these rules to actually achieve something Gender and Language Use 0 Originally people studying gender saw it as binary either male or female which led to research 0 Lakoff s early research 19705 Gender difference as a result of patriarchymale dominance I because women are considered inferior they behave and react in a way that makes them even more submissive Studied powerful and powerless speech Powerless style a Qualifiers n Disclaimers n Intensifiers a Tag questions a Hesitations n Excessive apologizing Powerful style a Elimination of powerless characteristic a Quick rate a Strong purposeful gestures Kind of sexist in itself because it claims women speak powerlessly and reinforce sexist beliefs 0 Deborah Tannen 19905 Gender differences as seen as a cultural matter due to differences in the way males and females are socialized Shift is away from theory based on dominance to theory based on difference Developed two styles I Feminine style focus more on social function 0 Rapport talk 0 Support and connection 0 Understanding 0 Social function Masculine style focus more on task completion a Report talk a Status and independence n Advice and action a Task function 0 Current research focus Gender is not a binary concept a Gender is socially constructed Gender as performance existing only within practice a People can behave differently in different contexts with different people Gender as changeable and selfdirected 21915 1206 PM 21915 1206 PM
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