PSY 325 Week 10 Notes
PSY 325 Week 10 Notes PSY 325
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 325 at Colorado State University taught by Karla Gingerich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Lecture 25 (Unit 4): Ch. 12- Experience, Existence, and the Meaning of Life Monday, April 4, 2016 1:00 PM • Reminders: o Engagement writing 6 due Friday, 11:59am • Humanistic Psychology o Your universe is yours alone, and only you experience it in the way you do o 8 elements of humanistic psychology (table 12.1): • Humanistic • Holistic • Historic • Phenomenological • Real life • Positivity • Will • Value • Humanism o One's unique, conscious experience of the world (called phenomenology) is more important than the world itself o Your particular construals (experience and interpretation of reality) direct your living o Perception matters more than any absolute reality o "We do not see things as they are. We see them as we a re" -Talmud o "it is not things in themselves that trouble us, but our opinions of them." -Epicetetus o "I do not react to some absolute reality, but to my perception of this reality. It is this perception for me which is reality." -Carl Rogers o Emphasis is on "the freedom of people to choose which elements to emphasize in their construals" of any situation • Ability to interpret things differently • We can choose our construals • This is how we can achieve free will o And it's all about the present • "the past is gone and the future is not here yet… you are here now" • Existentialism o We come into the world alone; we leave alone o We are ultimately responsible for ourselves • You invent your own answers to life's questions (such as "who am I? Where am I going?") • And you shouldn't neglect these concerns, because if you do, you "waste everything" say existentialists o Kurt Vonnegut (American author) says: We are nothing more than mud, some pretty lucky mud • "I tell you, we are on earth to fart around, and don't let anybody tell you different" -Vonnegut o Angst: existential anxiety o It is our existential responsibility to face angst directly, and affect whatever aspects of the world that we can o Don't live in bad faith, a.k.a.: • "head in the sand" • "passive living" o Authentic existence takes courage! • Existentialism isn't for wimps • But through this examination, you can gain your freedom • Eastern thought (example: Buddhism) o Your existence is no more or less real than anyone else's… • The more important fact is that all people are interconnected o Enlightenment is caring for others the same as for yourself • Humanistic Psychology o All people are basically good • Believed that we are born good, and something went very wrong (more for some people) o Everyone is motivated to work on needs according to a hierarch y, topped off with a need to self-actualize • Maslow's hierarchy of needs o Gloria tapes (next class) Lecture 26: Guest Speaker Wayne Viney Wednesday, April 6, 2016 1:01 PM • Sigmund Freud o 3 goals from today: • Presentism • Freud's personality, interests, etc. • Freud's theory of motivation • Presentism: the tendency to interpret the past in terms of the present o Presentists would argue that we are creatures of the past o Some say we can be past-minded o Past has 2 components: • Empirical- archived, ex: letters • Interpretive component § History is not entirely interpretive o A lot of people believe we can understand a person by crawling through the past empathically • Having a Baby o Idea came along that you can condition baby's bowel movements o Freud found that there is p leasure resulting from releasing bowels • Then he thought: how can we punish children for it? • Punishments can result in consequences, because children don't know they're doing something wrong • If you're too easy on the child, it has consequences too o This helps us understand the anal phase • Who was Freud? o Born in 1836 o Freud identified with his 2 older half -brothers, who moved to England o Freud spoke 8 languages (he was naturally brilliant) • Everything comes pretty easily for him o Becomes involved with Bruce Bruka p sychologist • They got along very well because Freud was in search of a father figure • Yakob was rude to his son Freud, which led Freud to view his father as weak o Freud began to do work on the spinal cord of the fish, he was intrigued by how similar it was to the human spine o Bruka told Freud he probably wouldn't get hired by a University because he was a jew, and he would have to go into nursing o Freud then becomes interested in the psychology field (after trying almost everything else) o He becomes depressed for about 10 years, and tries electrotherapy, which proved to have a placebo effect • Went to France to study hypnosis • When he did this, he learned about the unconscious processes that occur within ourselves o Goes back to Vienna, gives up electrotherapy, and begins trying catharsis and hypnosis • Is disappointed in both techniques o Finally, with help of his patients, he hits on the idea of free association o By 1896, the word/idea of psychoanalysis finally appears • Determinists refuse this ide a-- they didn't believe there was free will in people whatsoever • Freud struggles with this, because he wants to remain faithful to his teachers • He believes there are free wills available to determinists § Intrapsychic freedom: the idea that there is an abili ty to explore new ideas; fear can stifle new thought • The inability to doubt • Freud feels that the greatest restriction on freedom is authority • Freud found freedom in sublimation (cannot display everything publicly) § Sublimation is freedom, but we pay a price for it § Sublimation means you cannot express outwardly what you want to express § Sublimation expends at a slow rate • Motor release- Ex. Going on a run when upset • Verbal release- telling someone about being upset • Ideational release (not healthy-- releases at a slow rate) o By 1900, Freud is free from authority of his teachers • Idea of dreams comes to surface • 1900-1939: released hundreds of books • Nazis came after him in Vienna because authoritarians hated psychoanalysis -- it was a big threat to them (that there were underlying ideas behind what they're doing; perhaps we're not rational masters) • Freud's motivation o "Instincts and their necessities" • Common to all motives is a source, and it's a stimulus • The stimulus will build; it is persistent o A motive has: • A stimulus • A drive • An aim • An object (The object of the drive) § The most variable part about any drive § This is how we can like foods we once hated (The object of an avocado has changed for me) o For example, imprinting • We have something similar to imprinting w ithin us, that drives us to be attracted to someone • The object has to have an aesthetic component to please us § For ex., why do men love women's breasts? • Usually, it's the woman that's beautiful as a result of having good breasts, rather than the sex organ being beautiful itself § Why do we love hair? o If there is something common to every drive, it's pleasure • Pleasure is central (although some people seek pain) • Pleasure is always short-lived § The thing we seek most can't be endured for very long • It seems like the whole world attacks us to not have pleasure (keeps us from having what we want most) § The macro-world (starvation, poverty) rages against us, micro -world is even worse (bacteria) • Our own body causes us pain and suffering § Your body is doomed to desolation and decay § Our own body turns against us • Think of how much $ we spend trying to preserve our youth • By far the worst/greatest source of pain: other people § All the murders § Bad parenting § Violence at every turn § We suffer at the hands of each other o What can we do in the face of all of this pain? • Freud said: § Chemical solution (alcohol, drugs) • This penalizes itself too fast • It's not dignified • Violates who you are § We withdraw • From the world • From other people • Symbolically § Remove from the light • Religion creates a sense of intelligence where we don't enjoy the world that we have • It's a matter of faith to discover that there may be more, but if you are too into the faith, you fail to grasp what you have right now § The best hope: science • There is freedom in science and technology • Science has done more for us than anything • Lengthened our lives • Made our lives more comfortable • Make a real contribution to the world by getting into the scientific experience Lecture 27: Positive Psychology (Guest lecture) Friday, April 8, 2016 1:05 PM • Definition o Positive psychology is about scientifically informed perspectives on what makes life worth living. It focuses on aspects of the human condition that lead to happiness, fulfillment, and flourishing. • Historically psychology has… o Viewed people as objects to be studied o Ignored the things that make us uniquely human, such as: • Love • Wisdom • Free will o Emphasized curing bad outcomes rather than promoting good outcomes • Positive psychology o People are creators of their own world • We are agents, not pawns • We have some choice to navigate our world and make our own decisions o People are also creatures of the world • Biological influences still impact us o Focus on human strengths and individual differences • Positives and idiosyncrasies o Empirical research is critical • Efforts to emphasize humanistic theory • New emphasis on an old perspective… o Abraham Maslow • Self-actualization o Carl Rogers • Unconditional Positive Regard • Client-centered; active listening o Martin Seligman • Pushing positive psychology • Flourishing • Positive takes you through the countryside of pleasure and gratification, to the high country of strength and virtue, and finally to the lasting fulfillment: meaning and purpose • TEDx talk: work in psychology is still "not goo d enough" § We can always do better • Flourishing o "To live within an optimal range of human functioning, one that connotes goodness, generativity, growth, and resilience." -Seligman o High emotional well being • High positive affect/low negative affect, & life sat isfaction o High psychological well being • Self-acceptance, personal growth, purpose in life, environmental mastery, autonomy, and positive relations with others o High social well being • Social acceptance, social actualization, social contribution o Happy people… • Are healthier and live longer • Are more tolerant and creative • Make decisions more easily • Have greater work productivity and higher incomes • Select more challenging goals, persist longer,… o What kind of people are happy? • Age and gender have no influence on ha ppiness • Education, IQ, and ethnicity are also not predictors of happiness • After a certain level (livable income) money does not contribute to greater happiness • Married people are happier than single, widowed, divorced • Active religious practices linked to h appier and healthier lives • Basic needs must be met to achieve happiness (Maslow's hierarchy) • Happiness and Extraversion o "The happiest people all seem to have good friends" -Diener o Extraverts are highly social, outgoing, and more likely to meet the fundamen tal need to belong o Happy people seem to have the ability and desire to form strong, intimate relationships o They assume the best in others; trusting • Happiness and Conscientiousness o In some studies, conscientiousness was found to be most highly correlated wi th life satisfaction o Conscientious people are more assertive, decisive, set higher goals, and achieve more o A strong sense of personal control linked to well -being (more than objective circumstances) o Take credit for their successes and responsibility for failures (agent, not pawn) • Happiness and Self-Esteem o Happy people like themselves • Less susceptible to some medical concerns • More resilient after a failure • Less likely to conform o Satisfaction with self is a better predictor of well-being than satisfaction with family, friendship, and income • In an individualistic culture • Happiness and Optimism o Common thread in optimism • Seeing the best in others, self, and life events (glass half full) o Interpret setbacks differently • Learn from mistakes o Belief that one's effort and self -discipline matter so the future looks brighter o People who deny negative life events and emotions are among the unhappiest • BUT WAIT o If happiness is connected to personality then are there just unhappy or happy personalities? • Nope! • Core virtues o Taxonomy of ideal characteristics • Surveyed Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism • Took lexical approach and found 6 virtues o Courage: exercise of will to accomplish goals in the face of opposition o *Justice: underlie healthy community l ife o *Humanity: protecting and taking care of others o Temperance: Protect against excess o Wisdom o Transcendence o *= in all religions across the board • Character strengths o The route through which we achieve the 6 virtues o Conceptually similar to personality traits o Defined as "positive traits reflected in thoughts , feelings, and behaviors. They exist in degrees and can be measured as individual differences." o Are they personality traits or not? • Studies show correlation to the big 5 • But positive psychologists say not • Cultivation of Happiness: 3 life dimensions o The pleasant life: a life that successfully pursues the positive emotions about the present, past, and future • Optimism and positive emotions (Gratitude) o The good life: using your signature strengths to obtain ab undant gratification (through activities you like doing) in the main realms of your life • Using your strengths to improve your life o The meaningful life: using your signature strengths and virtues in the service of something much larger than you are • Using your strengths for the "greater good"
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