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Zoology Lab 106: Mammalia

by: Dallas Bowe

Zoology Lab 106: Mammalia Bio 106-016

Dallas Bowe
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.76

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About this Document

Taxonomy, structure functions and system functions of pigs and cats in class Mammalia
Zoology Lab
Dr. Nancy Butler
Class Notes
Zoology, lab, Biology, mammals
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dallas Bowe on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 106-016 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Nancy Butler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Zoology Lab in Biology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 04/20/16
Chapter 20: Mammals Kingdom: Animalia  Clade: Deuterostomia  Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia  ~ 4,800 species  ­ Deuterostomes Endothermic and homeothermic organisms   Ability to retain internal heat despite external conditions   Produce own heat   Epidermally derived hair covering for insulation Habitat: mostly terrestrial; some aquatic  Reproductive:   Dioecious   Internal fertilization   Viviparous; except spiny anteater (echidna) and platypus  o Give birth to live young   Females have mammary glands o Modified sweat glands that produce and secrete milk   Fetal membranes (allantois, chorion and amnion) o Fetus receives nutrients and oxygen from mother through placental attachment   Body: Head region:   Heterodont dentition  o Teeth in mouth that structurally differ to accommodate food   Dentary bone o Single bone that resides on each side of the lower jaw   Large cerebrum present  o Gives mammals the ability to to detect and respond to stimuli, modify behaviors,  and communication  Abdomen region:   Diaphragm present  4 chambered heart o Possesses systemic and pulmonary circuits that keep oxygenated and  deoxygenated blood separate   Skeletal system:  2 major regions o Axial skeleton  Skull, vertebral column and rib cage   Forms longitudinal axis  o Appendicular skeleton   Forelimbs, hind limbs, pectoral girdle, and pelvic girdle  Axial Skeleton  Mandible o Lower jaw composed of a fused pair of single dentary bones o Teeth anchored into it o Foramina present for innervation of teeth, lips and gums  Vertebral column  o Protects spinal cord  o Permits flexibility, support and anchor points for muscle attachment   7 cervical vertebrae comprise cranial portion  o Atlas  Where the skull joins the vertebral column at first cervical vertebra  o Occipital condyles  Base of skull  o Axis  2nd cervical vertebra; articulates with atlas to form pivot point for full  rotation of head   13 thoracic vertebrae o Ribs  Enclose chest region and extend from vertebrae  Provide protection and support for the heart and lungs   7 lumbar vertebrae o During embryonic development, 3 fuse together to form the sacrum    Supports the pelvic girdle and hindlimbs  o Caudal vertebrae (coccyx in humans)  Region consisting of the base of the sacrum to tip of tail  Appendicular Skeleton  Scapula  o Forms base of forelimb  o Not actually attached to skeleton; floats in cavity formed by muscle layers which  permits flexibility   Humerus  o Attached to distal end of scapula and comprises proximal end of forelimb  o Articulates radius and ulna  o Radius is smaller  7 bones of wrist  o Forefoot   Carpals   5 metacarpals   Phalanges  o Retractable claws present in distal phalanges   Captures and grasps fast­moving prey   Os coxae o Paired bones fused together to form pelvis  Femur  o long , proximal hindlimb that articulates with os coxae   Tibia and Fibula  o Distal hindlimb bones; fibula smaller  7 ankle bones of hindfoot (pes)  o Tarsals  o Metatarsals  o Phalanges   Calcaneus bone o Forms bulge in hindlimb  Locomotion:  Digitigrade (cats)  Walk on the tips of their digits/ phalanges  Plantigrade (humans)   Walk on soles of feet  Fetal Pig Kingdom: Animalia  Clade: Deuterostomia  Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia  Order: Artiodactyla Sensory:  Enhances ability to sense and respond to stimuli in environment   Closed eyes o Upper/lower eyelids and reduce nictitating membrane  Ears  External nares ­ breathing and sensing chemicals   Vibrissae o Tactile sensations attached to sensory nerve, triggered by air  movements/physical contact  Reproduction:  Umbilical cord  o Carries nutrient and oxygen rich blood to fetus and removes excess metabolic  waste products and carbon dioxide from fetal system   Mammary papillae o Females develop them in mammary glands  Urogenital opening  o Females ­ opening to reproductive pathway; serves as a channel to release urine o Males ­ releases urine and semen; penis not fully developed (embedded in  abdomen tissues)   Genital papilla  o Short projection that develops into the clitoris in adult females o Sends information about sexual stimulation to brain  Musculature:  Permits movement  ­Antagonistic pairs  3 types   Skeletal ­ voluntary control; fixed origin and moveable insertion; tapered to muscle belly   Cardiac ­ involuntary control; regulated by autonomic nervous system   Smooth ­ involuntary control; regulated by autonomic nervous system  Digestive:  Breaks down food  mechanically and chemically and absorbs/transports nutrients into  bloodstream for delivery to cells   Provides raw materials and energy for metabolic wastes processes  Permits mammals to sustain high metabolic rates and maintain endothermic balance  without need for constant supply of food  Hard palate ­ separate oral cavity from nasal cavity   Soft palate ­ allows mammals to eat and breathe simultaneously   Papillae o Small bumps near the tip and base of tongue   Stomach  o Produces hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen  Colon o Ascending colon o Transverse colon o Descending colon  Mouth w/ teeth → esophagus  → stomach (J­shaped) → duodenum → jejunum → ileum → cecum → colon → spiral colon →rectum → anus  Major Digestive Organs in the Fetal Pig Structure  Function Esophagus Transports food to stomach  Stomach  Produces hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, which aid in the chemical  breakdown of food Pyloric  Muscular band that regulates the flow of chyme from the stomach into the  stomach duodenum Liver Produces bile, converts glucose to glycogen for storage, detoxifies many  constituents of the absorbed digested compounds Gallbladder Stores bile produced by liver  Bile duct Transports bile from gallbladder to duodenum Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes and delivers them through the pancreatic duct to  duodenum Duodenum Receives chyme from the stomach along with bile and digestive enzymes from  the gallbladder and pancreas Jejunum Responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption and reabsorption of water Ileum  Continues the process of nutrient absorption and reabsorption of water  Cecum  Small, blind­ended out­pocket demarcating the beginning of the large intestine  that has a reduced appearance and function in carnivores and omnivores; in  herbivores it contains anaerobic bacteria responsible for fermentation of  cellulose and other plant materials  Spiral colon Responsible for reabsorption of water and electrolytes; transports feces to  rectum via peristalsis Rectum Final site of water reabsorption and feces dehydration  Anus Regulates egestion of undigested food (feces) from the body  Circulatory:  Responsible for transporting nutrients, gases, hormones, and metabolic wastes to and  from cells   Represents a series of vessels that diverge from the heart to supply blood to the body  1. Arteries/veins = paired; especially when the organs they supply/drain are paired  2. Continuous vessel often undergoes several name changes along its length as it passes  through different regions   4 chambered heart o 2 circuit  Pulmonary ­ heart to lungs and back   Systemic ­ heart to rest of body and back o Keeps oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate  Pulmonary arteries ­ channels blood from the right ventricle through the right and left pulmonary  arteries to the lungs; return oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart  Umbilical vein ­ in the fetus, returns oxygenated, nutrient­rich blood from the fetal side of the  placenta to the caudal vena cava  Aorta ­ supplies oxygenated blood to all posterior parts of the body  Spleen ­ vascularize ductless organ; recycles red blood cells  Respiratory:   Responsible for bringing a fresh supply of oxygen to the bloodstream and carrying off  excess carbon dioxide   Designed to humidify and warm the air while filtering out dust particles and germs   Nasal epithelium covered w/ hair to capture particles from entering lungs/ infest the body  During exhalation, heat and moisture loss is reduced  Structures Nasopharynx  →  larynx →  trachea →  bronchi →  lungs   Trachea  o Long tube reinforced with cartilaginous rings to prevent it from collapsing as  animal inhales   Larynx (voice box)  o Vocalization (large range)   Controlled by muscles in larynx that contract and relax altering the shape  of the voice box thus changing the sound that it produces   Bronchi  o Split in trachea  o Left and right bronchus   Lead into left and right lung   Left lung = 2 lobes  Right lung = 4 lobes   Bronchioles ­ in lungs (branches)  o Branches into smaller tubules into open sacs ­­­ alveoli  Composed of squamous epithelial tissue and surrounded by capillary  networks   Diaphragm  o Allows thoracic cavity to expand and compress  Diaphragm contracts ­­ draws in fresh air   Diaphragm relaxes ­­ expels air  Excretory:  Responsible for eliminating metabolic wastes that the body produces from cellular  respiration and for maintaining a homeostatic balance  Expels indigestible products through anus   Kidneys  o Filter blood; removing wastes produced in tissues   Urinary bladder  o Can expand and relax to accommodate volume of urine   Reproductive:   Responsible for producing the gametes that fuse with gametes of opposite sex  Scrotum  o Houses paired testes  Enclosed in thin membrane ­­­ cremasteric pouches   Spermatic cord  o Located near cranial end of cremasteric pouches containing vas deferens   Sperm produced in seminiferous tubules   Seminal vesicle  o Secrete viscous fluid that contains mucus(keeps sperm from drying out), fructose (provides sperm with energy and promotes motility and viability) and hormones to stimulate uterine contractions   Bulbourethral glands o Produce alkaline secretions that assist in lubrication during intercourse   Females = paired ovaries  o Oviduct ­ receives egg from ovary during ovulation   Fertilization takes place in upper third of oviduct   In pigs, uterus divided into 2 uterine horns  Where embryonic development of fetuses occurs   Uterine body  o Where 2 uterine horns converge on cervix  Endocrine:  Body’s attempt to adapt to coordinate the activities of organs  o Ductless; relies on circulatory system to send information throughout body   Glands produce/secrete hormones directly into bloodstream to be carried to target  organs  Hormones o Chemical compounds that interact with target cells in the body to produce a  myriad behavioral, neurological and physical response  o Influence behavior/processes that nervous system regulates   Degree of response shown by target organ is directly proportional to the amount of  hormone released by endocrine gland   Hypothalamus­pituitary complex  o Centralized control center that produces hormones that stimulate the activity of  other endocrine glands 


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