Zoology Lab 106: Mammalia
Zoology Lab 106: Mammalia Bio 106-016
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Zoology Lab
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dallas Bowe on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 106-016 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Nancy Butler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Zoology Lab in Biology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
Reviews for Zoology Lab 106: Mammalia
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/20/16
Chapter 20: Mammals Kingdom: Animalia Clade: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia ~ 4,800 species Deuterostomes Endothermic and homeothermic organisms Ability to retain internal heat despite external conditions Produce own heat Epidermally derived hair covering for insulation Habitat: mostly terrestrial; some aquatic Reproductive: Dioecious Internal fertilization Viviparous; except spiny anteater (echidna) and platypus o Give birth to live young Females have mammary glands o Modified sweat glands that produce and secrete milk Fetal membranes (allantois, chorion and amnion) o Fetus receives nutrients and oxygen from mother through placental attachment Body: Head region: Heterodont dentition o Teeth in mouth that structurally differ to accommodate food Dentary bone o Single bone that resides on each side of the lower jaw Large cerebrum present o Gives mammals the ability to to detect and respond to stimuli, modify behaviors, and communication Abdomen region: Diaphragm present 4 chambered heart o Possesses systemic and pulmonary circuits that keep oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate Skeletal system: 2 major regions o Axial skeleton Skull, vertebral column and rib cage Forms longitudinal axis o Appendicular skeleton Forelimbs, hind limbs, pectoral girdle, and pelvic girdle Axial Skeleton Mandible o Lower jaw composed of a fused pair of single dentary bones o Teeth anchored into it o Foramina present for innervation of teeth, lips and gums Vertebral column o Protects spinal cord o Permits flexibility, support and anchor points for muscle attachment 7 cervical vertebrae comprise cranial portion o Atlas Where the skull joins the vertebral column at first cervical vertebra o Occipital condyles Base of skull o Axis 2nd cervical vertebra; articulates with atlas to form pivot point for full rotation of head 13 thoracic vertebrae o Ribs Enclose chest region and extend from vertebrae Provide protection and support for the heart and lungs 7 lumbar vertebrae o During embryonic development, 3 fuse together to form the sacrum Supports the pelvic girdle and hindlimbs o Caudal vertebrae (coccyx in humans) Region consisting of the base of the sacrum to tip of tail Appendicular Skeleton Scapula o Forms base of forelimb o Not actually attached to skeleton; floats in cavity formed by muscle layers which permits flexibility Humerus o Attached to distal end of scapula and comprises proximal end of forelimb o Articulates radius and ulna o Radius is smaller 7 bones of wrist o Forefoot Carpals 5 metacarpals Phalanges o Retractable claws present in distal phalanges Captures and grasps fastmoving prey Os coxae o Paired bones fused together to form pelvis Femur o long , proximal hindlimb that articulates with os coxae Tibia and Fibula o Distal hindlimb bones; fibula smaller 7 ankle bones of hindfoot (pes) o Tarsals o Metatarsals o Phalanges Calcaneus bone o Forms bulge in hindlimb Locomotion: Digitigrade (cats) Walk on the tips of their digits/ phalanges Plantigrade (humans) Walk on soles of feet Fetal Pig Kingdom: Animalia Clade: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia Order: Artiodactyla Sensory: Enhances ability to sense and respond to stimuli in environment Closed eyes o Upper/lower eyelids and reduce nictitating membrane Ears External nares breathing and sensing chemicals Vibrissae o Tactile sensations attached to sensory nerve, triggered by air movements/physical contact Reproduction: Umbilical cord o Carries nutrient and oxygen rich blood to fetus and removes excess metabolic waste products and carbon dioxide from fetal system Mammary papillae o Females develop them in mammary glands Urogenital opening o Females opening to reproductive pathway; serves as a channel to release urine o Males releases urine and semen; penis not fully developed (embedded in abdomen tissues) Genital papilla o Short projection that develops into the clitoris in adult females o Sends information about sexual stimulation to brain Musculature: Permits movement Antagonistic pairs 3 types Skeletal voluntary control; fixed origin and moveable insertion; tapered to muscle belly Cardiac involuntary control; regulated by autonomic nervous system Smooth involuntary control; regulated by autonomic nervous system Digestive: Breaks down food mechanically and chemically and absorbs/transports nutrients into bloodstream for delivery to cells Provides raw materials and energy for metabolic wastes processes Permits mammals to sustain high metabolic rates and maintain endothermic balance without need for constant supply of food Hard palate separate oral cavity from nasal cavity Soft palate allows mammals to eat and breathe simultaneously Papillae o Small bumps near the tip and base of tongue Stomach o Produces hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen Colon o Ascending colon o Transverse colon o Descending colon Mouth w/ teeth → esophagus → stomach (Jshaped) → duodenum → jejunum → ileum → cecum → colon → spiral colon →rectum → anus Major Digestive Organs in the Fetal Pig Structure Function Esophagus Transports food to stomach Stomach Produces hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, which aid in the chemical breakdown of food Pyloric Muscular band that regulates the flow of chyme from the stomach into the stomach duodenum Liver Produces bile, converts glucose to glycogen for storage, detoxifies many constituents of the absorbed digested compounds Gallbladder Stores bile produced by liver Bile duct Transports bile from gallbladder to duodenum Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes and delivers them through the pancreatic duct to duodenum Duodenum Receives chyme from the stomach along with bile and digestive enzymes from the gallbladder and pancreas Jejunum Responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption and reabsorption of water Ileum Continues the process of nutrient absorption and reabsorption of water Cecum Small, blindended outpocket demarcating the beginning of the large intestine that has a reduced appearance and function in carnivores and omnivores; in herbivores it contains anaerobic bacteria responsible for fermentation of cellulose and other plant materials Spiral colon Responsible for reabsorption of water and electrolytes; transports feces to rectum via peristalsis Rectum Final site of water reabsorption and feces dehydration Anus Regulates egestion of undigested food (feces) from the body Circulatory: Responsible for transporting nutrients, gases, hormones, and metabolic wastes to and from cells Represents a series of vessels that diverge from the heart to supply blood to the body 1. Arteries/veins = paired; especially when the organs they supply/drain are paired 2. Continuous vessel often undergoes several name changes along its length as it passes through different regions 4 chambered heart o 2 circuit Pulmonary heart to lungs and back Systemic heart to rest of body and back o Keeps oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate Pulmonary arteries channels blood from the right ventricle through the right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs; return oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart Umbilical vein in the fetus, returns oxygenated, nutrientrich blood from the fetal side of the placenta to the caudal vena cava Aorta supplies oxygenated blood to all posterior parts of the body Spleen vascularize ductless organ; recycles red blood cells Respiratory: Responsible for bringing a fresh supply of oxygen to the bloodstream and carrying off excess carbon dioxide Designed to humidify and warm the air while filtering out dust particles and germs Nasal epithelium covered w/ hair to capture particles from entering lungs/ infest the body During exhalation, heat and moisture loss is reduced Structures Nasopharynx → larynx → trachea → bronchi → lungs Trachea o Long tube reinforced with cartilaginous rings to prevent it from collapsing as animal inhales Larynx (voice box) o Vocalization (large range) Controlled by muscles in larynx that contract and relax altering the shape of the voice box thus changing the sound that it produces Bronchi o Split in trachea o Left and right bronchus Lead into left and right lung Left lung = 2 lobes Right lung = 4 lobes Bronchioles in lungs (branches) o Branches into smaller tubules into open sacs alveoli Composed of squamous epithelial tissue and surrounded by capillary networks Diaphragm o Allows thoracic cavity to expand and compress Diaphragm contracts draws in fresh air Diaphragm relaxes expels air Excretory: Responsible for eliminating metabolic wastes that the body produces from cellular respiration and for maintaining a homeostatic balance Expels indigestible products through anus Kidneys o Filter blood; removing wastes produced in tissues Urinary bladder o Can expand and relax to accommodate volume of urine Reproductive: Responsible for producing the gametes that fuse with gametes of opposite sex Scrotum o Houses paired testes Enclosed in thin membrane cremasteric pouches Spermatic cord o Located near cranial end of cremasteric pouches containing vas deferens Sperm produced in seminiferous tubules Seminal vesicle o Secrete viscous fluid that contains mucus(keeps sperm from drying out), fructose (provides sperm with energy and promotes motility and viability) and hormones to stimulate uterine contractions Bulbourethral glands o Produce alkaline secretions that assist in lubrication during intercourse Females = paired ovaries o Oviduct receives egg from ovary during ovulation Fertilization takes place in upper third of oviduct In pigs, uterus divided into 2 uterine horns Where embryonic development of fetuses occurs Uterine body o Where 2 uterine horns converge on cervix Endocrine: Body’s attempt to adapt to coordinate the activities of organs o Ductless; relies on circulatory system to send information throughout body Glands produce/secrete hormones directly into bloodstream to be carried to target organs Hormones o Chemical compounds that interact with target cells in the body to produce a myriad behavioral, neurological and physical response o Influence behavior/processes that nervous system regulates Degree of response shown by target organ is directly proportional to the amount of hormone released by endocrine gland Hypothalamuspituitary complex o Centralized control center that produces hormones that stimulate the activity of other endocrine glands
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'