Psy2012 Last week of notes
Psy2012 Last week of notes PSY2012
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at Florida State University taught by Melissa Shepard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Psychology Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Mental Illness Psychopathology (mental illness): a disturbance in thoughts, emotions or behaviors that cause significant distress and/ or impairs functions o Can be broken down so we can not behave in ways that help us adapt o Causes significant stress and other negative emotions o Can get so intense that you can’t attend to hygiene or leave your house Failure Analysis approach: tries to understand MI by examining breakdowns in functioning o Anxiety interferes with the function it is supposed to help with Too much anxiety leads you to do worse on the exam Intro to Psychological Disorders Studies abnormal behavior Criteria that psychologists use to determine abnormal behavior/ psychologically disordered (Concept of Normality): o What is abnormal? Different from the norm (unusual) Statistically unusual based on the standard bell curve Ex: Hours of sleep: most people get 6-9 hours, but if someone gets 16 or 2, they are abnormal Just because something is rare, does not mean it is bad (Einstein) Every culture has different standards for normality! Most disorders are found cross-cultures, but the symptoms sometimes differ Not all disorders are uncommon o If the behavior leads to significant distress, it can be considered a disorder Mania: They don’t experience distress, but it is very impairing Some forms of distress and disability are the expected response to an event Grief over a loved one not considered a disorder Not all psychological disorders cause distress and not all distress implies a disorder o Impairment: interferes with one’s ability to get along in life Many ways that disorders an be impairing This is an important criterion Degree of impairment matters as well (grey area) Ex: intense fear of heights Impairing in a city, but not in a rural setting o Caveat/ exception: Everyone deviates, is distressed, or experiences impairment at times It’s a matter of degree, not either/or (yes/no) Think of it as a continuum between normal and abnormal Classifying Psychological Disorders Syndromes: Patterns of psychological symptoms o DSM: manual of how to classify diagnoses Been around since 1952 (We’re on the 5 version) Still being developed/ changed Groups disorders by category Very specific criteria checklist for how to determine disorders and make diagnoses and a set of decision rules for each condition Everyone who you are diagnosing must have 5 out of 9 symptoms to meet criteria Cautions phycologists to “think organic” Rule out physical causes of symptoms first Hypothyroidism causes some symptoms of depression Contains information about prevalence/ rarity Criticisms of the DSM Not all diagnoses meet criteria for validity o There are over 300 diagnoses and not all of them are super well researched o Even though it may not have significant research, people are hesitant to take it out Not all criteria and decisions rules are based on scientific data o Still a lot of things that need to be worked on High level of comorbidity o Multiple disorders occurring in one person o Usually, when you meet the criteria for one, you will have another o The distinct categories are more related than we think Reliance on categorical rather than dimensional model of psychopathology o Either you have the diagnosis or you don’t Vulnerable to political and social influences o Before a new version comes out, they will put out the proposed changes and groups will lobby for other things to be included/ not be included Categories of Disorders Anxiety Disorders o Exaggeration of threat o Results in Distressing, persistent anxiety Doesn’t include short-term (test) anxiety o May lead to Maladaptive, anxiety-reducing behaviors When you have so much anxiety, it can be impairing o Types of anxiety disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Defining feature o Excessive worry about situations that may not worry others o Continually tense and uneasy (over half of their day) Even in the absence of any specific anxiety-provoking stimulus o More general than phobias Panic Disorders Defining feature o Panic attacks Psychological component: intense fears Physiological component: Rapid heart rate, chest pain, difficulty breathing or swallowing, lightheadedness, sweating frightening symptoms that may feel like a heart attack o Worry about having future panic attacks o Changing personal behaviors to decrease likelihood of having an attack Some people will also receive a diagnosis of agoraphobia (fear of outside) o Comorbidity Phobias Different than a fear Intense fear of a particular animal, object or situation Sometimes these fears are adaptive (fear of poisonous snakes keeps you away from them) or maladaptive (fear of all snakes prevents you from vacationing in Florida) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Defining Features: o Exposed to a traumatic event and reacted with intense fear, helplessness or horror o Re-experiences trauma through Distressing recollections/ dreams Feelings of reliving trauma Intense distress/ physiological arousal when exposed to reminders Ex: Veterans hearing a helicopter Not always combat veterans Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Defining Features o Obsessions: recurrent and persistent distress- causing thoughts o Compulsions: Repetitive behaviors driven by the obsession o Very persistent and unwanted and will take up a significant part of their day Common type of obsessions o Contamination (dirt, germs, etc) o Repeated doubts o Need for symmetry, orderliness o Aggressive impulses o Sexual imagery o Many times, compulsions go along with obsessions Common types of compulsions o Cleaning, washing (when worried about germs) o Repeated checking (when having repeated doubts) o Arranging/ lining up objects (orderliness) o Counting, repeated words, constant praying (repeated thoughts) o Mood disorders Psychological disorders characterized by a lasting disturbance in mood When extreme moods occur for a lot time Extreme emotions Depression Mania Major Depressive Disorder Most common mood disorder Defining feature: o Severely depressed mood Major changes in sleep patterns, weight level and a loss in interest in pleasurable activities (anhedonia) Typically lasts for months in order to be diagnosed Bipolar Disorder Characterized as alternating between depression and mania Cycle through slower than people usually think o Mania for a week or two and depression for a little longer Depressive episode/ phase o Often indistinguishable from major depressive disorder o Can’t get enough sleep o Cloudy or no thoughts Manic episode/ phase o The opposite emotional extreme of depression o Euphoria, grandiose self-esteem and over- activity Do not require a lot of sleep Often hospitalized during this phase because of dangerous behavior Always moving and talking o Too many thoughts o Personality disorders Maladaptive patterns of behavior that have the ability to severely impact the way a person communicates and behaves in social situations Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) Long term pattern of manipulating, exploiting or violating the rights of other people o Don’t demonstrate their ability to see the perspective of other people o Don’t show remorse for their actions To receive a diagnosis, people must meet the diagnostic criteria for Conduct Disorder as a child o It’s an established pattern of behavior since childhood (wont develop in adulthood) Key symptoms o Law breaking behavior o Impulsive behavior o Physical Fights o Stealing/lying o Breaking and entering Very rare disorder (around 1% of the population) Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Marked by unstable moods, behavior and relationships with others Symptoms o Problems regulating emotions and thoughts Move from different extreme moods quickly o Impulsive or reckless behavior Instability of behaviors o Unstable relationships with other people Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorders, self-harm, suicidal behaviors and completed suicides Do care about other people, but they can’t keep relationships stable (frequent fluctuations) 1-2% of the population o Schizophrenia One of the most sever/tragic disorders Severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality Symptoms Disturbances in attention (trouble with working memory, thinking) Disturbances in thinking Disturbances in language (sometimes jumble their words Disturbances in emotions Disturbances in maintaining relations (these problems lead to difficulty holding relationships) Delusions: Strongly held, fixed belief with no basis on reality Super hard to convince these people that what they believe is not based on reality Hallucinations: sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimuli There are no external stimuli in the environment, but people still experience perceptions Less than 1% of the population Psychology Chapter 16: Psychological and Biological Treatments Psychotherapy “Talk therapy” A psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral and interpersonal problems and improve their quality of lives Over 500 “brands” of psychotherapy o People who research psychotherapy try to figure out which forms are the most effective Insight Therapies Psychotherapies where the goal is to expand awareness or insight Encompasses o Psychodynamic Therapy (Freud is the father of psychoanalysis) Psychodynamic therapy is an “offshoot” of psychoanalysis Causes of abnormal behaviors stem from traumatic or adverse childhood experiences Childhood trauma manifests itself in a form of depression in adulthood Therapists focus on analysis Avoided thoughts and feelings Wishes and fantasies Significant past events Therapists believe that when clients achieve insight into unconscious material, the causes and significance of symptoms become evident This will lead to a reduction of symptoms This is not very favorable anymore (Europe and New York primarily) o Humanistic Psychotherapy Therapies that share an emphasis on the Development of human potential o Helps people become their true selves/ realize their potential o Belief that human nature is basically positive People have a good human nature Stress the importance of assuming responsibility for our lives and living in the present Two forms Person centered therapy o Developed by Carl Rogers o Centers the client’s goals and ways of solving problems Clients instead of patients o When people seek therapy, they are not seeking a cure for a disorder, they are seeking help with the symptoms because they want to feel good again o Client-focused: Client would say these are my problems and these are my goals Therapy is shaped by client, not therapist o To ensure a positive outcome, the therapist must Be authentic and genuine Express unconditional positive regard (total acceptance) Show emphatic understanding The therapist does not focus on listening with a goal of shaping the therapy session Focuses on listening empathetically to the client Another we don’t have to know o Group approaches Family therapies Most psychological problems are rooted in dysfunctional families Goal: to address and fix maladaptive behaviors of the family Strategic Family Interventions o Designed to remove barriers to effective communication o Identify the maladaptive behaviors and target them Therapist will give the family “tasks” to complete between sessions Structural Family Therapy o The therapist immerses herself in the family in order to make changes o The family is instructed to try and act as they normally would Behavior Therapies Believe focusing on insight is not enough o Just because people are aware of something, it does not mean it will lead to a change in behavior Key assumption: maladaptive behaviors must be directly confronted o Merely increasing self-awareness is not enough o Maladaptive behaviors Maladaptive thoughts Draw a lot from conditioning and use counter-conditioning techniques o If someone has been conditioned towards a behavior, you want to condition against that behavior o Exposure Therapies Systematic Desensitization: Carefully controlled, gradual exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli Example: Phobic Disorder treatment Begins with relaxation training o You can’t be anxious if you are relaxed Establish an “anxiety hierarchy” The client is gradually exposed to the feared item o They progress to the next stage once the first stage no longer causes anxiety o Aversive Conditioning Creating an aversive response where the absence of one is causing problems Ex: Wild animals raised in captivity need to be conditioned to be afraid of dangerous animals/ situations Ex: When people have alcohol disuse disorder, they are prescribed a medication that will give them very bad negative side effects when consumed with alcohol Cognitive Therapies Assumption: our cognitive assessment of events is often the source of our distress o Target maladaptive thoughts in order to decrease maladaptive behaviors o Ex: Depressogenic Thinking (catastrophic thinking) “I’m never going to get better” “Everyone else is happier than me” o Cognitive- Behavior Therapy Targets maladaptive thoughts, behaviors and emotions Maladaptive thoughts and maladaptive behaviors are bad CB therapists encourage clients to Purge irrational negative thinking (cognitive component) Behave in “mood-incongruent” ways o Behavioral activation: “Get out there and participate In reinforcing activities!” Selecting the Best Therapy Depends on the diagnosis! o Diagnosis-based therapy The therapist will treat/ analyze based on your diagnosis Treatment of Major Depression o Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Target their maladaptive thinking (catastrophic thinking) and engage them in mood-incongruent behavior o Interpersonal psychotherapy Works with people to help change relationships o Antidepressant medication Treatment of anxiety disorders o Cognitive-Behavior Therapy o Exposure Therapies help with most anxiety disorders except GAD o Antianxiety medication Psychopharmacotherapy Use of pharmaceutical medications to treat physiological disorders o Ex: Treating schizophrenia with medication is very effective Works by altering people’s brain chemistry Ineffective if people don’t take them Should be used in combination with psychotherapy/ talk therapies Antianxiety medication (Xanax, Ativan) o Reduces central nervous system activity o Combination with alcohol is dangerous o Potential for dependence especially when people take them more frequently than prescribed Antidepressant medication (Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil) o Boosts the availability of neurotransmitters that elevate arousal and mood o Some effects are due to the placebo effect
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