Fabian PSYC 1000: 18-20 April Notes
Fabian PSYC 1000: 18-20 April Notes PSYC 1010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
CH. 12 Personality Disorders Inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning 3 categories – anxious (fear of social rejection), eccentric/odd (flat effect, no social attachments), dramatic (attention-seeking, self-centered, amoral) Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) A lack of conscience for wrongdoing even toward family and friends Risk factors – biological relatives, decreased physiological arousal, lower levels of stress hormones, beginning in childhood (impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards), abused or neglected in childhood combined with genetic vulnerability Biosocial Roots of Crime: The Brain In people with antisocial criminal tendencies, the emotion-controlling amygdala is smaller Frontal lobes are also less active (impulse control) CH. 16: Therapy Current Forms of Therapy Psychotherapy – therapy using psychological techniques to help overcome difficulties or achieve growth Biomedical therapy – therapy using biological treatments to reduce symptoms Combining therapies – an eclectic approach Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud A set of techniques for releasing the tension of repression and resolving unconscious inner conflicts Techniques – free association, interpretation Very time-consuming and expensive Psychodynamic Therapy Discover themes across important relationships Focus is on improved self-awareness and insight into unconscious thoughts and feelings which may be rooted in past relationships Interpersonal Therapy Further extension of psychoanalysis Less focused on insight and past experiences Improve relationship skills Reduce symptoms Humanistic Therapies Humanistic psychology – Maslow and Rogers, emphasizes the human potential for growth Humanistic therapy – attempts to boost self-fulfillment by helping people gain self- awareness and self-acceptance “Client centered therapy” The therapist should exhibit empathy and unconditional positive regard and should listen without judging or interpreting The present and future are more important than the past Behavior Therapy Sometimes insight and self-awareness do not reduce symptoms Behavior therapy uses the principles of learning especially classical and operant conditioning Maladaptive symptoms – learned behaviors that can be replaced by adaptive behaviors Classical Conditioning Techniques Counterconditioning – refers to linking new positive responses to previously aversive stimuli If you have been conditioned to fear stores because you have had panic attacks there, you could be led to a store and helped with relaxation exercises in order to associate stores with relaxation Exposure Therapy AVOIDANCE of the feared situation worsens a conditioned fear Avoidance is reinforced because it quickly reduces anxiety Guided exposure to the feared situation eliminates avoidance Versions of Exposure Therapy Systematic desensitization – construct a hierarchy of anxiety-triggering situations, gradually increase the exposure intensity while using relaxation techniques Virtual reality therapy Aversive Conditioning When a person has been conditioned to have a positive association with a drug, aversive conditioning can associate the drug with a negative response Condition an aversion to something the person should avoid Ex: alcohol and nausea Operant Conditioning Therapy Behaviors are influenced by consequences Behavior modification – reward desired behaviors, withhold reinforcement for undesired behaviors Select appropriate reward Token economy Cognitive Therapies Our thinking influences our feelings If thinking patterns can be learned, they can be replaced In the cognitive perspective, the cause of depression is not bad events, but our thoughts about those events Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck’s therapy for depression Many problems arise from irrational thinking or errors in thinking (catastrophizing) Change negative self-talk Stress inoculation training – restructure your thinking in stressful situations Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Works to change both cognitions and behaviors that are part of a mental health disorder Family therapy – family as a social system, communication, conflict, parenting strategies Group therapy – one therapist for several clients, less cost per person, clients realize that others share their problems, can develop social skills Self-help groups – led by group members instead of a therapist, the focus is more on support Using Outcome Research in Therapy Evidence-based practice – the use of therapeutic techniques proven to be effective Randomized clinical trials – use of an experimental design to determine if a therapy worked (control group does not get treatment) Drug (Medication Therapies) Psychopharmacology – study of drug effects on mind and behavior To evaluate effectiveness, experimental design (control group gets placebo) Types of medication – antipsychotic (blocks dopamine receptors), antianxiety (depresses central nervous system activity), antidepressant (increases serotonin or norepinephrine by inhibiting reuptake) The antidepressant benefit compared to the placebo is minimal or nonexistent on average in patients with mild or moderate symptoms Types of medication – mood stabilizers (treats bipolar disorders, Lithium, still looking into it), ADHD “stimulants” (blocking reuptake of dopamine from synapses) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Causes shock-induced seizures For patients who have not responded to drug therapy, ECT works well to relieve severe depression This might allow neural rewiring and might boost neurogenesis Therapeutic Lifestyle Change Human bodies and brains were designed for physical activity and social engagement The effects of regular exercise and a full night’s sleep are similar to the effects of antidepressant drugs Renew the disintegrating family, change environments that breed loneliness, empower those that feel helpless, love and nurture your children Risk and Protective Factors for Mental Disorders Risk factors – increase risk of mental disorders Protective factors – protect from getting a mental disorders What can we change? How can we intervene to prevent or treat a mental illness?
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