Bio Anth Class Notes Week 11
Bio Anth Class Notes Week 11 Anth 1001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1001 at George Washington University taught by Shannon C. McFarlin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Middle & Upper Pleistocene: Archaic Homo sapiens & Neanderthals • Middle Pleistocene hominins ◦ Different hypothesis of the taxonomic location for these species ◦ One single species? ▪ H. hiedelbergensis ◦ Or at lest three species? ▪ H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis, H. rhodesiensis ◦ Different populations with different evolutionary relationships • Variations on a theme: archaic Homo sapiens, Neanderthal, and anatomically modern Homo sapiens skull ◦ Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens ▪ Large cranial capacity (1350 cc) ▪ Rounded cranium ▪ Limited development of occipital torus or bun ▪ Prominent mastoid process ▪ Small teeth and jaws ▪ Chin ▪ Face is smaller in general and gracile, not very robust ▪ Limited development of brow ridges ▪ Canine fossa • Middle Pleistocene Hominins: “Archaics” ca. 900-150,000 years ago ◦ Primitive (similar to H. erectus) ▪ Long, low skull; thick cranial bones ▪ Very large brow ridges ▪ No canine fossa ▪ No chin ▪ Post cranial skeleton more robust than humans ◦ Derived (similar to modern H. sapiens) ▪ Larger cranial capacity (1200-1300 cc) ▪ Higher forehead ▪ Arched, double row bridges ▪ Molar size is decreased • Atapuerca, Spain ◦ Long history of having evidence of species form the pleistocene ◦ Different sites corresponding to different periods of human evolution ▪ Sima del Elefante- The first Europeans ▪ Spain, 1.3 ma ▪ Oldowan artifacts, hominins remains ▪ Gran Dolina: Homo antecessor ▪ 950-850 ka, Spain ▪ Oldowan tools ▪ cut marks on human bones ▪ Oldest evidence of cannibalism ▪ Human bones processed in the same way as other fauna ▪ Homo antecessor ▪ Initially described as the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans ▪ Facial traits similar to H. sapiens ▪ Dental traits similar to Neanderthals ▪ Possible dead evolutionary end; evolutionary relationships are not clear ▪ Eima de los Huesos: Homo heidelbergensis ▪ “pit of bones" ▪ Spain, 400 ka; clear relationship with Neanderthals ▪ Carnivores and humans; at least 28 individuals ▪ Causes of the accumulation are not clear (perhaps intentional) ▪ H. heidelbergensis ▪ 600-200 ka, Europe ▪ Large number of specimens coming from different regions of Europe ▪ Some of them show clear similarities with Neanderthals, but some other don’t ▪ Probably direct ancestors of Neanderthals • Early Stone Age/Lower Paleolithic ◦ Oldowan (Mode 1) & Acheulean (Mode 2) • Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic ◦ (300-50 Ka) ◦ Middle Pleistocene hominins and Neanderthals ◦ Require even more planning than Acheulean tools ◦ The Levallois Technique ◦ Evidence for big game hunting ▪ Bones of large animals associated with Acheulean tools ▪ Humans may have stampeded large animals over the edge of this cliff and butchered the carcasses ▪ Collaborative hunting effort, complex social patterns ▪ Wooden spears, Schoeningen (400 ka) ▪ Archaic Middle Pleistocene hominins hunted large animals and possessed specialized toolkits for doing so ◦ Bodo Cranium, Ethiopia (600 Ka) ▪ More evidence of cannibalism?
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