Bio Notes 4/19
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rocket on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Vertebrate Reproductive System +Origin + Maturation of Germ Cells Primordial Germ Cells arise from yolk sac +Vertebrate Gonads (ovary/ testis) Arise from a pair of “genital ridges” along dorsal wall of embryo; migrate ❖ Male Reproductive System +Gonads testis (testes) Develop in abdominal cavity and then descend into scrotum Seminiferous Tubules: coiled tubules in testes Leydig Cells Secrete testosterones Sertoli Cell: located in Seminiferous tubules, provide nourishment to sperm and cells associated with sperm development +Male Duct system Epididymis: Large portion of duct where all seminiferous tubules enter Sperm storage and maturation (swimming ability) Defected sperm resorbed here Vas Deferens: Rapid sperm transport Ejaculatory Duct: Rapid sperm transport Junction of Vas deferens and seminal vessel Urethra Conducts sperm and urine Transport tube within copulatory organ Copulatory Organ: Penis w/Urethra Accessory Glands: Sperm does not pass through these structures Secretions into male duct system +Seminal Vesicle: Secretes protalands (stimulate muscle contraction within the uterus) and fructose(short term nutrition for sperm) +Prostate Glands: Secretes lubricated liquid +Bulbourethral Glands: Secretes more lubrication, directly into urethra Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive System At Puberty: Hypothalamus secretes LHRH and FSHRH → to Pituitary which stimulates release of FSH and LH to transport to→ Gonads FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) initiates sperm production in seminiferous tubules + LH (luteinizing hormone) stimulates leydig cells to secrete testosterone→ ➢ Testosterone: Required for development and maintenance of male reproductive system +Secondary (2 degree) sex characteristics: Increase bone density Increase skeletal muscle mass Thicken vocal chords Slower vibration response in vocal chords Spermatogenesis Series of stages for sperm development Spermatozoan Head: Contains nucleus Capped by acrosome (contain enzyme that penetrates egg) Midpiece: Abundant mitochondria ATP production Necessary for swimming Tail: Flagellum for swimming ★ Female Reproductive System +Ovary (gonad) site off: Egg production (ovum) Hormone Secretion: estrogen/progesterone +At puberty: About 400,000 ova per ovary (primordial ova) Primordial cells producing ova (eggs) form during embryonic development Oogenesis: Steps to producing eggs +Oviduct (uterine tube) NOT attached to ovary, overhanging it Normale site of fertilization +Uterus Site where fertilized egg implants itself Attached by placenta Endometrium (Inner lining) will thicken up and build tissue with vessels and capillary beds If fertilization occurs and becomes implanted to uterine wall, then Endometrium continues to develop, release hormones from both sides of placenta from mother + fetus will maintain placenta connection If NO fertilization occurs and no implantation, endometrium sloughs off and discharged from body +Cervix Distal end of ovary/ entry of uterus +Vagina Receptacle for penis during copulation Birth Canal +Vulva External genitalia Labia Majora Labia Minora Clitoris Analogous: Similar functions Bird wings analogous to mosquito wings Homologous: Similar origin Bird wings and human arms are homologous Labia Majora: Scrotum Clitoris: Penis Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive System At Puberty: Hypothalamus releases FSHRH and LHRH→ Pituitary then secretes FSH and LH which get transported to → Gonads (ovary) Ovarian Follicle= ovum (egg) + surrounding cells Variable stages of maturation Follicle cells secrete→ estrogen + progesterone Estrogen: Formation and maintenance of female reproductive structure More adipose tissue Corpus Luteum: Remnants of follicles after Ovulation (release of egg) Called “yellow body” Secretes Progesterone Progesterone: Promoting gestation (pregnancy) Promoting long term build of Placenta + Uterine wall Induces uterine lands to secrete tissue and blood vessels +Timing of Reproduction Involves environmental cues + hormonal activity Most mammals: Estrous cycle Monestrous (deer, bears) 1 heat a year Diestrus (dogs) 2 heat a year Polyestrous (rodents, rabbits) Too many a year ❖ Menstrual Cycle: 28 day uterine cycle +Ovarian Effects Days 113: Follicular Phase (FSH Hormone) building up the follicles and cells Day 14: Ovulation (LH Hormone) stimulate release of progesterone Day 1528: Luteal (LH Hormone) +Uterine Effects (menstrual) Days 15: Menstrual phase where endometrium sloughs off, discharged loss of blood Days 614: Proliferative Phase where estrogen increased to the buildup endometrium for preparation of fertilization Days 1528: Secretory Phase where progesterone increased to cause uterine glands to produce more tissue/blood flow
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