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BIS 010 Week 3 Notes

by: AlexandraRita Notetaker

BIS 010 Week 3 Notes BIS 010 021

AlexandraRita Notetaker
GPA 4.2

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About this Document

Week 3 notes BIS 010
General Biology
Class Notes
BIS010, Biology, GeneralBiology, Science, Biologicalscience, Chemistry, Chemistry, notes, notes, ucdavis, ucdavis, Dais, Dais, Dais
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlexandraRita Notetaker on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIS 010 021 at University of California - Davis taught by Debello in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 04/20/16
  Day  5  (April  12 )-­‐  Viral  Hijacking   Research  on  HIV   Zika  Virus   •   Flavivirus:  closely  related  to  yellow  fever,  dengue  and  west  nile  viruses   •   (+)  ssRNA  virus   •   Infects  skin  cells  and  dendritic  cells   •   In  US,  fewer  than  1000  cases/year:  1/316,000  Autoimmune  and   neurological  associated  disorders  spread  by  Aedes  mosquitoes                   •   one  large  protein,  >3000  aa   •   cleaved  into  smaller  functional   proteins  by  a  viral  protease                   •   (+)ssRNA  serves  as  mRNA   to  make  polypeptide   •   dsRNA  made,  (-­‐)  strand   serves  as  template  for   more  genome  copies           Viruses  mediate  evolution   •   endogenous  retroviruses   •   retroviruses  -­‐  insert  genetic  material  into  host  DNA   •   "endogenous”  =  from  within   •   riddled  with  copying  mistakes   •   remain  a  silent,  hobbled  passenger  in  the  genome   •   viral  genomes  become  part  of  host  genome  many  remain  dormant  and   are  not  pathogenic     We  are  actually  part  virus:   •   =  8%  of  our  total  DNA   •   the  human  genome  about  100,000  copies  of  dead  viruses  in  our  genome   •   one  virus  carries  a  protein  called  syncytin  expressed  in  the  placenta   •   in  all  placental  mammals,  syncytin  is  key  for  drawing  nutrients  into  the   embryo’s  bloodstream     2     DNA-­‐  The  Narrative  Life  for  DNA   •   Heredity   •   Mendel  (1866)   •   DNA  =  heredity   •   Watson  and  Crick  (1953)  Human  Genome  (2001)   •   Your  own  DNA  sequence  -­‐  now.     A  brief  History  of  DNA   •   Principles"of"inheritance"  using  "pea"  plant  "traits"   •   Why  "peas"  as"a"model&system?"   -­‐  Control"fertilization,"easily"defined"traits"   •   Characteristic"patterns"of"trait"inheritance:"traits"were"  NOT"blended"   •    Laws"of  "trait"segregation:"""   -­‐  independent  "assortment""   -­‐  Dominant  "versus"recessive"traits"   -­‐  Homozygous  "versus"heterozygous"     -­‐  Alleles  "as"  multiple  "forms"  of  "genes”     Candidate  polymers   •   Lipids     •   Carbohydrates     •   Proteins     •   Nucleic  acids     3     The  Discovery  of  DNA   Joanna  Fredrich  Miescher  circa  1870   •   Worked  in  a  hospital  with  white  blood  cells.   •   When  he  added  salt  and  a  alkaline  solution  he  precipitated  a   substance  high  in  phosphorous.  He  postulated  that  it  was  the   storehouse  for  the  phosphorous  atom.     Phoebus  Levene  circa  1900s   •   Discovered  that  Miescher’s  substance     •   DNA  building  blocks  called  nucleotides  contained  protein  and  DNA.   -­‐  deoxyribose  sugar,  a  phosphate  group,  and  one  of  four  nitrogen   bases   -­‐adenine  (A),  thymine  (T),  guanine  (G),  and  cytosine  (C).   •   Components  are  linked  together:  phosphate  –  sugar  –  base   DNA                               4     Transformation-­‐  dead  to  living  bacteria   1928  Griffin:   •  Virulence  and  appearance  of  Streptococcus  &  pneumoniae  could  be   transferred  to  a  non-­‐virulent  strain     1944:  DNA  transforms   •  1st  experiment:  Avery  and  colleagues  used  a  process&of&elimina3on  to   identify  the  transforming  agent.   •  Identical  extracts  from  heat-­‐treated  S  cells  were  treated  to   •  destroy  protein  -­‐  hydrolytic  enzymes     •  destroy  RNA  –  RNA  nucleases   •  destroy  DNA  -­‐  DNA  nucleases   •  DNA  is  necessary  for  transformation.   •  2nd  experiment:   •  They  chemically  isolated  DNA  and  showed  that  it  possessed  t he  same   transforming  ability  as  the  heat-­‐treated  extract.     The  structure  of  DNA  1953   How  can  you  determine  the  Structure  of  DNA?   •   Rosalind  Franklins  X-­‐ray  diffraction  images  of  DNA:   -­‐   The  X  pattern  was  a  tell  tale  sign  of  a  very  regular  helical   structure  and  provided  the  basic  dimensions.     •   Hydration  Experiments:  Phosphate  groups  on  the  outside  and  the   basis  on  the  inside.         5   How  do  the  helices  fit  together?  How  are  bases  arranged?     -­‐   Franklins  experiment  were  critical   -­‐   Watson  and  crick  put  evidence  together     -­‐   Had  to  agree  with  Chargaff’s  rules:  A=T  C=G     End  of  Notes  Day  5                                             6     Notes  day  6  (April  14 )-­‐  The  Code   th  Base  Pairs                     The  Secondary  Structure  of  DNA                             7     Implications  from  DNA  structure   •   The  possible  permutations  of  4  nucleotides  in  a  polymer  become  VERY   large  as  the  polymer  lengthens.  Human  genome  has  over  3  billion  base   pairs!   •   Each  strand  is  complementary  to  the  other,  each  has  the  information   needed  to  construct  the  other.   •   Once  separated,  each  strand  can  serve  as  template  to  direct  the   formation  of  the  other  strand   •   The  nucleotide  bases  pair  through  hydrogen  bonds.  A  pairs  with  T.  G   pairs  with  C.  In  a  helix  strand  these  bonds  compliment  each  other.       Central  dogma  -­‐  “breaking”  the  code                   •   DNA:  self-­‐replicating  genetic  material  encodes  the  blueprint;  capable   of  variation   •   RNA:  convert  information  in  DNA  into  proteins   •   Proteins:  Catalysts  and  workhorses         8   What  is  an  Enzyme?   •  The  enzyme  is  not  modified  by  the  reaction   •   An  enzyme  is  a  biomolecule  that  acts  as  a  catalyst,  increasing  the  rate   at  which  a  chemical  reaction  occurs   •   Enzymes  can  speed  up  reactions  dramatically     Properties  of  enzymes     •  Enzymes  are  highly  specific   •  A  single  enzyme  can  catalyze  the  same  reaction  many  ^mes   •  Enzymes  are  typically  regulated  (they  are  not  always  working)     DNA  is  copied  by  an  enzyme   •   Arthur  Kornberg:  reconstituted  replication  in  cell  free  systems  to   define  the  necessary  components   •   Protein  does  the  work  of  DNA  replication:  DNA  polymerase   •   Complex  system:  many  proteins  required   •   Sequences  on  the  DNA  specify  where  replication  is  initiated:  origin     DNA  is  copied  by  an  enzyme   DNA  Polymerase   Challenges:   1.)  Speed  –  need  to  copy  the  whole  genome  for  each  cell  division   2.)  Accuracy  –  errors  will  become  mutations           9   DNA  is  copied  by  an  enzyme   •   DNA  Polymerase   •   Speed:  Can  add  about  50  nucleotides  per  second!!!  Accuracy:  Only  one   error  every  10^8  base  pairs!!!     Mechanism  of  DNA  replication   DNA  polymerase   •  can  only  add  nucleotides  to  3'-­‐OH  end  of  an  existing  strand;  a  primer  is   necessary   •  DNA  polymerase  primers  are  RNA  molecules   •  can  only  work  in  a  5’  –  3’  direction   •  Needs  a  template  DNA  strand  to  copy     Mechanism  of  DNA  replication   •   Replication  “fork”   •   The  strand  growing  toward   the  fork  grows  continuously   in  5'—>3'  direction  (leading   strand)  as  the  replication   fork  advances   •   The  strand  growing  away   from  fork  (lagging  strand)   grows  discontinuously  as   Okazaki  fragments         End  of  Notes  Day  6   10       11  


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