J 101 Grammar for Communication
J 101 Grammar for Communication
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This 34 page Reader was uploaded by Morgan Miller on Monday April 14, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.
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Date Created: 04/14/14
Modu e 4 Making a Sentence To make a sentence you need A subject person or thing doing an action or being described Always a noun or a pronoun A verb action or word linking the subject to the description A complete thought An object of a sentence is the person or thing an action is done to Its always a noun or a pronoun A sentence may have multiple subjects objects and verbs however the subjectverb are the main ingredients What doesn t constitute a subject 1 The object CANNOT be the subject 2 Information that is not essential to the sentence CANNOT be the subject 3 Nouns or pronouns in a prepositional phrase CANNOT be the subject 4 Except but not in addition to are clues that what follows can39t be the subject an implied subject is YOU Gerunds words ending in ing that are nouns ln nitives a combination of the word to a verb don t think that a noun or pronoun closest to the verb is the subject What is the subject in the following sentences For three days now I have eaten oatmeal for breakfast I along with my friends ate salad for lunch yesterday When she read the novel her eyes watered and her head began to feel light Under my bed are six packing boxes and a huge collection of pictures My roommates and I ate curry for dinner yesterday A team of dancers and college drop outs left for South Dakota today The number of moths that can live in a cabinet is quite high Blake and Hannah but not the rest of the class got on the train at noon Two days is not enough time for anyone to fully train a dog 1 For three days now I have eaten oatmeal for breakfast I along with my friends ate salad for lunch yesterday When she read the novel her eyes watered and her head began to feel light Under my bed are six packing boxes and a huge collection of pictures My roommates and I ate curry for dinner yesterday A team of dancers and college drop outs left for South Dakota today The number of moths that can live in a cabinet is quite high Blake and Hannah but not the rest of the class got on the train at noon Two days is not enough time for anyone to fully train a dog Module 2 Verbs Types of Verbs 0 Action verbs indicate that the subject is doing something examples got know sat sleep 0 Linking verbs describe the condition of the subject include all verbs of to be am is are was were been as well as appear feel look seem smell sound taste Action verbs power a sentence by showing what a subject does versus linking verbs help writers provide detailed descriptions about the subject Types of Verbs 0 Helping Verbs are additional verbs that help give a slightly different meaning to a sentence or tell the time that something is taking place Example Can I play baseball with you Questions physical ability May I go to the bathroom Questions allowance Types of Verbs 0 Helping Verbs Am are is was were Be been being Can shall will Could should would Do does did Had has have might must 39 False Verbs 0 Gerunds words ending in ing that are nouns 0 lnfinitives a combination of the word to a verb 0 The word following of is almost NEVER a verb Lay vs Lie Lay Laid Had laid To place Lie Lay Had lain To get horizontal Verb Tenses 0 Verbs help showtime by their tense The most important tenses are the present past and past participle There are no steadfast rules on how to conjugate verb tenses Here s a few irregulars nh Past participle Begnw B e Come Bkwv Freeze Hurt SeH Sing Sink 39H nk Began BR Cmhe Bkwv Froze Hurt Soki Sang Sank Thought Begun Bitten Come BkmNn Frozen Hurt Soki Sung Sunk thought Practice Fill in Table Past participle Lay Had laid Lay To get horizontal Answers Past participle Lay Laid Had laid To place Lie Lay Had lain To get horizontal Identify the Type of Verb in the Sentence My sinuses are stuffy so I oan t smell She loves jumping on the trampoline The woman felt every bump on the pavement The farmer smells like dirt I am leaving for Florida tomorrow 0 0 F 9 N E The tan Californian is leaving for the beach tomorrow Answers action verb not a verbgerund action verb linking verb helping and action OW 01 lgt 00 Igt I 39 Helping and action Module 3 Pairing Subjects to Verbs Pairing Subjects to Verbs rt Singular with Singular rt Plural with Plural Rules 1 Verbs ending in s are singular 2 Nouns ending in s are plural 3 NonCountable nouns are always singular examples diabetes mathematics measles mumps physics 4 Some nouns ending in s can be singular or plural exam les economics ethics olitics P P if these words are referring to a field of study they are singular Rules Continued 5 Some plural nouns don t end in s they end in a in plural form Criteria Criterion Curricula Curriculum Data Datum Media Medium Memoranda Memorandum Strata Stratum Symposia symposium When a word is plural and doesn t end in an s an easy way to choose the right Verb is to substitute a short plural noun ending in s such as dogs example the media arrive Versus the media arrives substitute dogs in for media and see that the first sentence is correct Rules Continued 6 Two subjects Work together and are considered one example peanut butter and jelly is my favorite sandwich 7 Collective Nouns groupings of humans and animals that have their own nouns examples audience team public school department society class Collective nouns are considered singular Rules Continued 8 Corporations and Organizations are always singular example union association and organization match the Verb that comes before the word of 9 Units of measurement are singular example twelve gallons is Rules Continued 10 Subjects can be singular or plural depending on use inde nite pronouns Anyone Both All Each Few Any Everyone Many Most Much Several None No one Some Someone Add the word one after each to remind you that each is always singular 11 12 13 14 Rules Continued Fractions match the Verb to what the fraction modi es The Words the number are always singular The words a number is always plural When someone or something is one of a larger group all of whom share some common characteristic match the Verb to the group if someone or something is the only one doing something or being described match the Verb to the individual Rules Continued 15 Subjects joined by or or nor if both subjects separated by or or nor are singular choose singular Verb example Susan or Juan is 16 When one subject is singular and the other is plural match the Verb to the closest subject example the skunk or the skunkweed plants are Practice Fill in the Table in Anyone All Few Everyone Many Most None No one Some Both Each Any Much Someone Several Any Anyone Each Everyone Much No one Someone Answers Both Few Many Several eo All Any Most None Some Fill in the Correct Form of the Verb 1 Everyone to ride the bus 2 Over the hill dogs to play 3 The media to cover an issue 4 I ve always loved to imagine that my each of my friends is are imaginary 5 Most of the room to smell like owers Answers 1 Everyone rides the bus Everyone is singular 2 Over the hill dogs play The subject of the sentence is never found in a prepositional phrase 3 The media cover an issue Latin based words ending in a are always plural 4 ls Each is always singular 5 Most of the room smells like owers The word most depends on what it modi es since the room is the subject it is singular and so the verb to smell should also be singular
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