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GEOL110_Natural Hazards CH4

by: Doris M

GEOL110_Natural Hazards CH4 GEOL 110

Doris M
Long Beach State
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

Ch 4 class notes
Natural Disasters
Ewa Burchard
Class Notes
class, notes, Natural Hazards, natural, Hazards, CH, 4, Chapter, lbsu, csulb, long, beach, ewa, buchard
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Doris M on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ewa Burchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at California State University Long Beach.


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Date Created: 04/20/16
Tsunamis     Objectives  for  the  Lesso n   -­‐What  is  the  trend  of  population  on  coastal  areas ?   -­‐How  can  we  minimize  tsunamis ?   -­‐What  should  we  do  when  there's  a  warning  issued ?     Japan  2011:  Tsunami  and  Nuclear  Disaste r   -­‐over  8  M   -­‐flooded  the  coast  and  nuclear  power  plan t   -­‐created  from  a  subduction  zon e   -­‐when  the  plates  move,  the  subduction  zone -­‐one  moves  below  the  other  move s  above   -­‐elastic  rebound   -­‐compression   -­‐the  subduction  zone  is  on  the  ocean  floo r   -­‐there  was  about  3000  km  of  water  above     -­‐all  of  the  water  moved  the  rock s   -­‐on  the  open  ocean,  the  wave  isnt  noticeable   -­‐energy  released  by  the  movement  of  the  wave,  an d  now  energy  is  stored  with  in  the  wave  and   moving  in  all  direction s   -­‐the  waves  that  are  moving  away  are  related  to  the  coastlin e   -­‐the  waves  that  are  closer  to  the  coast  is  known  as  the  local  tsunami  wav e   -­‐the  distant  tsunami  wave  moved  towards  the  water  away  from  the  coas t       Intro  to  Tsunamis   -­‐tsunami  is  Japanese  for  "Harbor  wave "   -­‐caused  by  a  sudden  vertical  displacement  of  ocean  wate r   -­‐triggered  by:   -­‐large  earthquakes  that  cause  uplift  or  subsidence  of  sea  floo r   -­‐underwater  landslides   -­‐volcano  flank  collapse   -­‐can  displace  water  and  create  tsunami s   -­‐submarine  volcanic  explosion   -­‐asteroids   -­‐can  produce  mega-­‐tsunamis   -­‐during  high  tide,  there  is  al ready  elevated  surface  area,  and  so  the  tsunami  would  be  highe r   -­‐Chart:  Some  Historic  Tsunami s     How  Do  Earthquakes  Cause  Tsunamis ?   -­‐movement  on  the  ocean  floor  has  to  be  significant  to  create  a  tsunam i   -­‐must  be  upward  movemen t   -­‐1:  Earthquake  uplifts  or  downshifts  the  seafloo r   -­‐2:Tsunami  moves  rapidly  in  deep  ocea n   -­‐3:Tsunami  nears  land,  loses  speed,  gains  heigh t   -­‐4:  tsunami  moves  inland  destroying  everything  in  its  pat h   -­‐tsunamis  travel  quickly   -­‐by  knowing  the  depth  of  the  ocean,  you  can  find  the  tsunami's  velocity   -­‐when  the  tsunami  reaches  the  coast,  the  ocean  slows  down  because  of  the  frictio n   -­‐in  an  open  area,  the  tsunami  will  reach  deepe r   -­‐if  there  is  vegetation  it  would  slow  the  tsunami  down  the  more  vegetation,  the  bette r   -­‐all  the  parameters,  will  affect  the  amplitude  of  the  tsunam i   -­‐tsunami  carries  a  lot  of  energy  and  destroys     -­‐the  more  energy  the  more  destruction   -­‐when  the  ocean  recedes  from  the  coast,  it  is  significant  because  it  can  indicate  if  there  was  an   earthquake  and  whether  a  tsunami  will  hi t   -­‐the  first  tsunami  wave  doesn’t  have  to  be  the  stronges t   -­‐when  the  water  recedes  its  an  indication  that  another  wa ve  is  coming     -­‐uplift-­‐Ep-­‐driving  horizontal  movemen t   -­‐split  into  local  and  distant  waves  height -­‐1/2  of  original  dome     Distant  tsunami   -­‐travels  out  to  sea   -­‐travels  long  distances  with  loss  ov  energy     Local  Tsunami   -­‐travels  toward  land  quickly   -­‐ppl  have  little  time  to  react     How  do  Landslides  cause  Tsunamis ?   -­‐Alaska  tsunami   -­‐created  by  landslide   -­‐created  an  abnormal  water  surg e   -­‐the  tsunami  wave  was  about  20  meters   -­‐vegetation  affected  and  sediment  was  deposite d   -­‐Papa  New  Guinea   -­‐15  meters  high   -­‐different  coast  have  different  tsunami  hazard s   -­‐some  have  greater  hazard,  significant  hazard,  or  low  hazar d   -­‐greatest  hazard:  return  per.  Less  than  500  yr s   -­‐significant  hazard:  500-­‐2000  yrs  of  return  per.   -­‐low  hazard:  2000+  yrs  of  return  per.   -­‐shape  of  shoreline,  vegetation     Indonesian  Tsunami   -­‐felt  also  in  Africa   -­‐ppl  not  well  educated  and  so  ppl  didn’t  know  how  to  behav e   -­‐after  the  tsunami  there  weren't  proper  precautions  take n   -­‐located  near  subduction  zone   -­‐megathrust  faults  associated  with  subduction  zone s   -­‐no  warning  system   -­‐no  measuring  system  of  tsunami  wave s   -­‐ppl  were  unfamiliar  with  tsunami  wave s   -­‐animal  behavior-­‐elephants  observed  that  there  was  going  to  be  a  disastrous  event s    -­‐in  the  Indian  ocean,  there  is  subduction  and  the  Australian  plate  is  affecte d     iclicker     What  happenes  as  a  tsunami  near  land?   The  height  of  the  waves  inc….     If  Kilauea  volcano  in  Hawaii  collapsed  into  the  pacific  ocean,  areas  of  Oregon  may  experience  a     -­‐distant  tsunami     The  two  waves  created  from  a  single  wave  (as  seen  in  the  figures)  are  called  the     -­‐local  and  distant  waves     A  local  tsunami   -­‐can  arrive  quickly,  giving  little  warning  time .     According  to  the  map,  which  of  the  following  has  the  least  relative  hazard  f rom  tsunamis?   -­‐Florida     Tsunami  Hazard  Summary  and  Revie w     8.9  Magnitude  earthquake  occurred  at  the  depth  1000  m,  at  the  subduction  zone:  Indian  and   Burma  plates.  What  is  Tsunami  velocity ?   -­‐velocity=  (square  root)     Ex  of  Historical  Tsunami  Hazard s   -­‐there  can  be  earthquakes  that  can  trigger  the  slopes     -­‐any  volcanic  island  located  on  the  ocean  can  erupt  can  cause  mass  wasting  or  cause  an  eruption   of  a  volcano     -­‐1883:  volcano  collapse:  Krakatoa -­‐Indonesia   -­‐there  were  3  volcanoes     -­‐since  the  1950's  the  volcano  grew  in  heigh t   -­‐in  the  summer,  it  became  restless   -­‐a  tectonic  plate  pushed  below  the  other  and  caused  lava  to  move  up  and  go  thru  the  volcan o   -­‐3  small  volcanoes  on  top  of  a  larger  on e   -­‐there  are  new  volcanoes  growing  aroun d  it   -­‐local  tsunami  for  all  the  coasts     Tsunami  Hazard  Effects   -­‐Primary  effects   -­‐inundation  of  water  and  resulting  flooding  and  erosio n   -­‐shorten  coast  line   -­‐debris  erodes  both  landscape  and  human  structure s   -­‐secondary  effects   -­‐fires   -­‐from  erupted  gas  lines  or  other  source s   -­‐contaminated  water  supplies   -­‐floodwaters,  wastewater  treatment  plant s   -­‐disease   -­‐come  in  contact  w/polluted  wate r     Causes  of  Tsunamis   -­‐natural  service  functions ,   -­‐bring  nutrients  from  the  ocean  to  coastal  so ils   -­‐bring  in  sediment  needed  to  build  shoreline s   -­‐help  us  better  understand  tsunami  hazard s   -­‐humans  cant  prevent  or  control  tsunami s   -­‐humans  don’t  affect  frequency  or  magnitud e   -­‐increased  use  of  shoreline  increases  consequence s     Detection  and  Warnin g   -­‐the  pacific  ocean  has  measuring  system s   -­‐America  is  a  little  bit  more  prepared  when  it  comes  to  detecting  tsunami s   -­‐tsunaimeters  are  located  on  ocean  floor s   -­‐the  antennas  can  transfer  info  about  possible  tsunami s   -­‐  the  ocean  floor  can  inc  in  pressure  and  the  devices  can  detect  inc  water  pressure   -­‐land  uses   -­‐creating  hazardous  zones   -­‐tsunami  hazard  zones   -­‐analysis   -­‐probability  of  a  tsunami  happenin g   Education   -­‐recognizing  evidences  of  tsunamais     Tsunami  Runup  Map   -­‐runups:  elevation  waves     Structural  Control   -­‐Building  Designs   -­‐houses  and  small  buildings  unable  to  withstand  even  one  to  2  meter  wave s   -­‐larger  structures  can  be  engineered  to  greatly  reduce  or  minimizes  destruction s     -­‐houses  can  be  designed  precifically  for  a  tsunami  wave   -­‐sea  walls   -­‐located  on  Japanese  coast     The  Ring  of  Fire   -­‐on  the  East  coast  there  are  also  tsunami  hazard s   -­‐closer  to  the  Atlantic  ocean     La  Palma   -­‐Cumbre  Villeja  erupsts  unpredictably   -­‐change  being  taken  place  in  the  ven ts   -­‐deep  in  the  volcano,  there  are  2kinds  of  rock s   -­‐one  lets  water  in,  the  other  collects  wate r   -­‐a  breakoff  of  a  volcano  can  cause  a  tsunam i     Land  use   -­‐vegetation  helps  defend  against  tsunami s   -­‐vegetation  helps  prevents  hazard s   -­‐prevents  coastal  erosio n   -­‐planting  vegetation  and  wetlands  are  importan t     Education   -­‐tsunami  watch:  there  was  a  trigger-­‐  a  landslide  or  earthquake   -­‐there  could  be  a  possible  tsunami   -­‐tsunami  warning:  a  tsunami  already  happened  and  the  scientists  fig ure  out  how  long  it  will  take   for  the  tsunami  to  hit   -­‐just  because  the  first  tsunami  wasn’t  strong,  doesn’t  mean  the  second  one  won t     Tsunami  Ready  Status   -­‐higher  ground     Perception  and  Personal  Adjustment  Tsunami  Hazar d   -­‐do  not  assume  that  if  there  are  no  waves  the  area  is  saf e   -­‐pollution  created  by  tsunami  and  nuclear  power  plant  explosions,  the  contamination  can  cause   a  concentration  of  radio  active  isotopes  towards  the  coas t     Which  is  not  a  way  a  tsunami  hazard  can  be  minimized ?   -­‐clearing  all  coastal  vegetation     What  us  the  problem  with  building  seawalls  to  protects  against  a  tsunami ?   -­‐They  could  cause  a  false  sense  of  securit y     Even  if  a  community  is  "tsunami",  what        


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