Second set of notes towards exam 2
Second set of notes towards exam 2 PY 370
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Alpert on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at a university taught by Dr. Sheila R. Black in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 127 views.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
2172015 Gestalt Psychology The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with selforganizing tendencies This principle maintains that when the human mind perceptual system forms a percept or gestalt the whole has a reality of its own independent of the parts Thought psychology was going in the wrong direction by using introspection in the way that Wundt and Tichener advocated Wertheimer39s discovery quotFather of gestalt psychologyquot Stroboscope Experimentsat the correct projection rate the stationary child walked and the stationary horse began to trot Tachistoscope projected light through two slits Phi Phenomenon ntrospection could not explain phi phenomenon The whole experiencethe apparent movement of the line from one slit to anotherdiffered from the sum of its parts quotThe whole is greater than the sum of its partsquot Principles of Gestalt Psychology Focuses on holistic thinking Phenomenological basis the experience in it of itselfwhat the experience was like before analysis and introspection Methodologystimulate real life somorphismpsychological processes are directly related to biological Gestalt Principles of Perception When people look at an environment they want to make sense of it lnterior designers use Gestalt principles This occurs in an orderlylawful way Proximity if two items are close together people tend to group them together Similarity In the environment when items have something in common you have a tendency to group them together Closure When something resembles a familiar shape you think of the shape even with breakslines Generalizability of Gestalt Principles You can apply these principles to other stimuli that may not be perceptual Zeigarnik Effect German waitersremember billuntil paid Lack of closuretensionforefront of memory Zeigarnik had people perform a variety of tasks that were left uncompleted Participants recalled un nished tasks better than nished tasks Media takes advantage of Zeigarnik Effect example cliffhangers and commercials right before a commercial something happens in the show that you want to know but won t nd out until after the commercial want closure Alpha the Chimpanzee and Closure Want to nd out if chimpanzees show this need for closure Alpha was given a circle with part of it missing to see what she would do with it and she would scribble in the missing area try to get rid of empty spaces in drawings The Gestalt Completion Test If an individual is able to recognize a gure as a man another gure as a dog and another as a horse with a rider it shows that their right hemisphere is not impaired Gestalt Psychologists wondered if we every truly perceive reality You bring your own biases and own experiences to any situation and it can prevent you from seeing what is actually there objectively Kohler succeeds Stumpf as director of the Berlin Psychological Institute Gestat Psychology at its peak In 1933 Jews were expelled from civil service which included all professional positions in Germany 12 of the faculty were Jews Some faculty ed to the US including historically black colleges in the US Wertheimer39s work in the US Wertheimer removed from position in 1933 and expelled form Germany Wertheimer began teaching at New School for social Research in NYC Productive Thinking book Wertheimer39s Views on Education Opposed rote memorization He thought it was possible to instill productive thinking in all children He believed that creativity involved exibility and novelty AHA experiences he called insight Kohler39s insight learning Thorndike was arguing that animals are not capable of higher reasoningjust SljR connections Kohler felt that the proper tasks had not been used to examine reasoning Koher developed his famous insight learning tasks in which the animals would have to problem solve in order to get the goal usually a basket of bananas Results of Kohler39s studies Chimpanzees capable of using insight and problem solving to obtain bananas What did Kohler do differently from Thorndike Animals in home enclosures The Mind of Apes Tested animals in presence of others He described results statistically Properties of Insight Learning Animal sees or perceives solutionAha whereas Thorndike s trial and error is slow and gradual lnsight learning does not depend on rewards learned how to get bananas before they actually tasted them nsight learning involves positive transfer learned that if you stand on something you can reach the boxes it didn t have to necessarily be the stool they learned that they could stand on boxes or each other 2192015 Kurt Lewin nterested in motivation and actions One of the founders of Social Psychology and the study of Group Dynamics Topoogica elds to depict psychological phenomena Life space includes everything about you at that point in your life experiences Child has a simple life space but an adult has a more complex one B f P E Function of both the person you are and the experiences you have Born Unique environment in uenced you as well Advocate of applied research Very against structuralism Agreed with Gestalt notion of looking at the whole Observed people in their natural environment Responsible for the effect where the lack of closure keeps things in the forefront of your mind Cafeteria Study reach for items that were the farthest from them If you work for something you value it more if something requires work then it must be valuable Frustration toys and regression study Raggedy Ann vs Doll House Studies involving 10yearold boys What type of leadership style is best for the child Compared democratic vs autocratic leadership style Kids preferred democratic leadership style Action Research Social justice ldentify problems in society and create a study in order to address those speci c problems Lewin engages in what would now be called Industrial Psychology Virginia Plant Underperforming Empoyees paid well Poor selfefficacy Lewin ensured success Gradually improved performance Mead Lewin and campaign to persuade Americans to eat visceral meat Margret Mead nutritionistadvantages of eating visceral meat heart kidney etc vs group discussion no expert with facts but people just talked about why they should visceral meat vs other meat Group Discussion more effective asked people to show whether or not they were going to change their eating habits he found that more people in the group discussion actually purchased cooked and ate visceral meat compared to the people in the 39expert condition lmportance of attitude change group discussion gave people a chance to change their attitudes about visceral meat when an expert was talking they passively listened and may or may not have been persuadedit took less active thinking Work at MIT Group Productivity Spread of Rumors Social Perception and Interpersonal Relations Leadership Training Commission on Community Interrelations CCI for the American Jewish Congress AntiSemitism faced this himself in Germany wanted to provide equality for everyone Backs not hired in dept stores bc employers thought that customers would make less purchases Sanger and Gilbert interviewed customers after purchase found no decline in the amt of purchases or customer satisfaction Connecticut State Inter Racial Commissionsensitivity training Understand individuals who were different from themselves Housing Project Study Segregated and Integrated housing and racial attitudes 2 completely integrated 2 partially segregated Most cordial relations in integrated projects with 70 African American occupancy Studies played an important role during Civil Rights Movements Gestalt Therapy Not related to Experimental Gestalt Psychology Gestalt Psychology in Perspective Made important contributions in Sensation and Perception mportant contributions in cognitive psychology and animal cognition insight learning Lewin responsible for the establishment of social perception and psychology
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