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Chapter 16: Therapy

by: Bailey Gabrish

Chapter 16: Therapy Psych 1010

Marketplace > Science > Psych 1010 > Chapter 16 Therapy
Bailey Gabrish

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About this Document

These notes cover the textbook chapter and the lecture in class.
Introduction to Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
Science, Psychology, Introduction to Psychology, Social Science
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.

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Date Created: 04/20/16
Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 16: Therapy Psychotherapy versus Biomedical Therapies  Philippe Pinel and Dorthea Dix pushed for more humane treatments and mental hospitals  Psychotherapy – treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions  between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties  or achieve personal growth  Biomedical Therapy – prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the  person’s physiology to reduce symptoms  Eclectic Approach – an approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various  forms of therapy Psychoanalysis  Psychoanalysis – Freud’s therapeutic technique o Believed patients’ free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences (and  therapists’ interpretations of it) released previously repressed feelings, allowing  the patient to gain self­insight and resolve inner unconscious conflicts  Interpretation – analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances,  and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight  Transference – patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with  other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent) o Reclaim unconscious thoughts and feelings into conscious awareness o Resistance – blocking from consciousness anxiety­laden material  Psychodynamic Therapists – therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition; views  individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences and seeks to  enhance self­insight o Discover themes on relationships and focus on improved self­awareness and self­ insight  Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on currency rather than the undoing of the past to  improve relationship views Humanistic Therapy  Insight Therapies – variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by  increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses  Humanistic therapies differences from psychoanalytic theories o Humanistic therapies aim to boost self­fulfillment by helping to grow in self­ awareness and self­acceptance o Promoting this growth, not curing illness, is the focus o The path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for one’s feelings and  actions rather than uncovering hidden determinants Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o Conscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious o Present and future are more important than the past  Client­Centered Therapy – Carl Rogers’ humanistic therapy in which the therapist uses  techniques such as active listening with a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to  facilitate the client’s growth (person­centered therapy) o Unconditional positive regard  Active Listening – empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies  (part of client­centered therapy)  Unconditional Positive Regard – caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Rogers believed would help clients develop self­awareness and self­acceptance  Tips to listen more actively in your own relationship 1. Paraphrase 2. Invite clarification 3. Reflect feelings Behavior Therapy and Exposure Therapies  Behavior Therapies – applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted  behaviors o Derived from Pavlov’s principles o Includes classical and operant conditioning  Counterconditioning – behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to  evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors (exposure  therapies and aversive conditioning) o Exposure Therapies – behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization  and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in  imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid  Avoidance worsens a conditioned fear, need guided exposure  Systematic Desensitization – a hierarchy of anxiety triggering situations in which a pleasant relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing  anxiety­triggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias  Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy – anxiety treatment that progressively  exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears o Aversive Conditioning – counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state  with an unwanted behavior Therapy Based on Operant Conditioning  Voluntary behaviors are strongly influenced by their consequences o Operant conditioning reinforces for desired behavior and withholds reinforcement for undesired behaviors  Token Economy – people earn  token for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later  exchange their tokens for various privileges or treats Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Criticisms o The durability of the behaviors o Is it right for one human to control another’s behavior? Cognitive Therapy  Cognitive Therapy – teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking based on the  assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions o Gentle questioning reveals irrational thinking which can then be removed (Beck)  Change negative self­talk   The causes of disorders are thoughts o If thinking patterns can be learned, they can also be replaced Aim of Technique Technique Therapist’s Directives Reveal beliefs Question interpretations and  Explore beliefs and faulty  rank emotions and thoughts assumptions and rank from  mildly to extremely upsetting Test beliefs Examine consequences and  Explore situations,  decatastrophize thinking consequences, and faulty  reasoning and determine how  to cope with consequences Change beliefs Take responsibility and resist  Change total self­blame and  extremes; stress inoculation  develop new ways of  training – restructure thinking thinking, replacing  in stressful situations maladaptive habits  Cognitive­Behavioral Therapy – popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive  therapy (changing self­defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior) Group and Family Therapies  Group Therapy – therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting  therapeutic benefits from group interactions o Saves therapists time and clients’ money o Offers social laboratory for developing social skills o Enables people to see that others share their problems o Provides feedback as clients try new ways of behaving  Family Therapy – treats family as a system and views individual’s unwanted behavior as  influenced by or directed at other family members o Focus on communication, conflicts, and parenting styles  Support groups focus on stigmatized or hard­to­discuss illness o Long for community and connectedness o Run by clients themselves Therapy Problem Aim Technique Psychodynamic Unconscious  Reduce anxiety  Interpret memories  Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts conflicts from  through self­insight and feelings childhood Client­Centered Barriers to self­ Enable growth via  Listen actively and  understanding and  unconditional  reflect feelings self­acceptance positive regard,  genuineness,  acceptance, and  empathy Behavior Dysfunctional  Adaptive behaviors  Classical and operant  behaviors extinguish problems conditioning Cognitive Negative and self­ Promote healthier  Train people to  defeating thinking thinking and self­talk dispute negative  thoughts and  attributions Cognitive­Behavioral Self­harmful thoughts Promote healthy  Train to counter self­ and behaviors thinking and adaptive harmful thoughts and  behaviors act out new ways of  thinking Group/Family Stressful  Heal relationships Understand family,  relationships social systems, roles,  and communication Psychotherapy’s Effectiveness  Client testimonials o People use therapy in crisis o Clients believe treatment will be effective o Clients want to believe therapy was worth it o Clients speak kindly of their therapists  Therapists testify to therapies success o Clients leave when they are less unhappy but may seek another therapist’s help  with future recurring problems  Meta­Analysis – procedure for statistically combining the results of many different  research studies  Those not undergoing therapy improve but those with therapy are more likely to improve  quicker with less chance of relapse  Evidence­Based Practice – clinical decision making that integrates the best available  research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences o Available therapies are evaluated and applied to what is best in the unique  situation  Use experimental design with control group that does not receive  treatment Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o Includes patient’s values, evidence and research, and clinical expertise Alternative Therapies  EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) – clients imagine traumatic  experience while therapist waves finger in front of their eyes to unlock and reprocess  frozen memories o Criticized as a combination of exposure therapy and the placebo effect  Light exposure during dark seasons dims depression symptoms the same as taking drugs  or doing cognitive­behavioral therapy Elements of All Psychotherapy  Hope for demoralized people  New perspectives lead to new behaviors  Create empathetic, trusting, and caring relationship  Therapeutic Alliance – bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and  client who work together constructively to over the client’s problem Cultures and Values in Therapy  Cultures and clients differ in values and communication styles and language o Asian minorities in the US do not form strong bonds with American individualist  therapists  Religious people may prefer religiously similar therapists Selecting a Therapist  When to seek help o Feel hopeless o Depression o Self­destructive behavior o Disruptive fears o Mood shifts o Thoughts of suicide o Compulsive rituals o Sexual difficulties o Hearing voices/seeing things Type Description Clinical psychologists Ph.D. or Psy.D, with supervised internship  and postdoctoral training; works in agencies,  Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts institutions and private practices Psychiatrists Specialize in treatment, can prescribe  medication, and see those with most serious  problems in a private practice Clinical or psychiatric social workers 2 year master of social work and post  graduate supervision, works with everyday  personal and familial problems Counselors Marriage and family, clergy, abuse, mental  health; may need master’s degree  Biomedical Therapy – physically changing the brain’s functioning by altering its  chemistry with drugs, affecting circuitry with electroconvulsive shock, magnetic  impulses, or psychosurgery; or influencing responses with changes in lifestyle Drug Therapies  Psychopharmacology – study effects of drugs on the mind’s behavior  Double­Blind Procedure – neither staff nor patients know who is taking medication or a  placebo  Antipsychotic Drugs – drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe  thought disorder o Block dopamine receptors o Side effects like movement problems and obesity  Antianxiety Drugs – drugs used to control anxiety and physical agitation o Depress the central nervous system o Do not solve underlying problems, addictive, slow thinking, withdrawal  symptoms  Antidepressant Drugs – treat depression and anxiety disorders by improving mood and  eliminating depressive thoughts o Increase neurotransmitters and inhibit reuptake (serotonin and norepinephrine) o SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) o Aerobic exercise, cognitive therapy, or using drugs with cognitive­behavioral  therapy helps o Placebo can work just as effectively  Mood­Stabilizing Drugs – eliminate highs and lows of mania and depression o Lithium  Stimulants – control impulses, focus attention, and reduce need for stimulation o Block dopamine reuptake Psychosurgery  Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) – biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain or an anesthetized patient o Treat severe depression (weakens connections in hyper connected hub in the left  frontal lobe) Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o Neural rewiring and boosts neurogenesis o Seen as barbaric  Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) – repeated pulses of magnetic  energy to the brain to stimulate or suppress brain activity  Deep­brain stimulation to neural “sadness center” aids in depression  Psychosurgery – surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change  behavior  Lobotomy – psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or  violent patients by cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion­ controlling centers of the inner brain o Produced permanently lethargic, immature, and uncreative people Healthy Lifestyle  Humans were designed for physical activity and social engagement  Outdoor activity reduces stress and promotes health  Aerobic exercise, adequate sleep, light exposure, social connection, anti­rumination,  empowerment, love, and nutritional supplements all help in depression Therapy Presumed Problem Aim Technique Drug therapies Neurotransmitter  Control symptoms of  Alter brain chemistry  malfunction disorder through drugs Brain stimulation Severe, treatment  Alleviate what is not  Electro compulsive  resistant depression responsive to drugs shock, magnetic  impulses, deep­brain  stimulation to  stimulate the brain Psychosurgery Brain malfunction Relieve sever  Remove and destroy  disorders brain tissue Therapeutic lifestyle  Stress and unhealthy  Restore healthy  Alter lifestyle  change lifestyle biological state through exercise,  sleep, etc. Preventative Mental Health Programs  Understand psychological disorders as understandable responses to a stressful society  Prevent psychological casualties by identifying and alleviating the conditions that cause  them  Empowering those that are helpless and change environments that breed loneliness  Resilience – personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from  adversity and even trauma  Posttraumatic Growth – positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with  extremely challenging circumstances and life crisis


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