Lesson 6 Notes
Lesson 6 Notes 4616 - HORT 102
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Irene A. on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4616 - HORT 102 at Washington State University taught by Michael Pumphrey in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultivated Plants in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
HORT 102 LESSON 6 NOTES Lecture 10 Flower and Fruit Structure and Function 0 Types of owering plants 0 plant growth I ower only once I vegetative growth stops once owers begin to grow oral initiationinduction I examples grasses small grains corn 0 plant growth I vegetation continues to grow after owers begin to grow I produce owers and fruit over a longer period of time I examples beans cottons petunia Function of Flowers 0 Main function reproduction attracting pollinators for reproduction O bright colors and shapes attract insects that spread pollen 0 single ower on one stalk O examples rose tulip 0 arranged in a cluster on a stalk 0 cluster is called an in orescence 0 forms include a Spike raceme or head Flower Structure 0 Structures help classify plants 0 understand how pollen is spread 0 pollination can occur I Within the same ower I between owers of the same plant I between owers on separate plants of the same species 0 StructuralAccessory Parts O o O I 0 I small green leafy structures below outermost petals enclose and protect the ower bud A group of sepals above or inside sepals brightly colored attract pollinators A group of petals all sepals all petals Reproductive Essential Structures The stamen is the male reproductive structure usually 3 or more per ower Anther male reproductive cells that produce pollen Filament Stalk that supports the anther the pistil is the female reproductive structure may be more than one in each ower sections of the pistil there may be a single one or multiple carpels receives pollen produced by male reproductive structure connects stigma to ovary Contains female reproductive cells Monocot vs Dicot Flowers 0 Sepals petals and stamens develop in groups of 3 or 6 0 Grass ower specific type of monocot structures are the equivalent of the calyx and corolla found in dicots is an individual grass ower called the in orescence are two leaflike bracts at the base of each spikelet contain the stamens amp pistil together with other bracts located above the glumes 0 Sepals petals and stamens develop in groups of 4 or 5 Classi cation based on ower parts 0 Contains sepals petals pistils amp stamens most dicots have complete owers 0 One or more of the four ower parts sepals petals pistils stamens is missing 0 All grass owers are incomplete no sepals or petals Classi cation based on sexual expression 0 or hermaphroditic 0 Contains both the pistil and stamens male amp female reproductive parts 0 Missing either stamens or pistil only has one reproductive part 0 All complete owers are perfect not all perfect owers are complete 0 example grass ower has pistils amp stamens but not petals amp sepals 0 female ower that contains only the pistil example ear of corn 0 male ower that contains only the stamens example corn tassel 0 meaning quotone housequot pistillate amp staminate owers reside on the same plant 0 example corn ears are pistillate tassel is staminate owers are imperfect 0 meaning quottwo housesquot has only staminate or pistillate owers on a plant male amp female owers are imperfect and found on separate plants often propagated asexually must outcross introduce unrelated genetic material to produce seed 0 O O 0 example Gingko biloba Flower Formation 0 All ower parts are modified leaves 0 Environmental photoperiod or chemical signal changes from vegetative to oral 0 development order sepals gt petals gt stamens gt pistil outer part to inner part 0 develops from ovary of ower 0 fruit is a mature ovary with its associated parts 0 function to protect and disperse seeds 0 develops from ovule of ower ovule structure that contains female reproductive cells 0 single ovary formed from single ower example Strawberry O Pericarp made up of O Exocarp outer skin 0 mesocarp main eshy part 0 endocarp layer surrounding the seed 0 develop from many ovaries on a single ower example Grapes 0 Multiple Fruit Develops from individual owers on an in orescence ower cluster 0 fuse together as fruit grows example pineapple 0 Fruits split at maturity to expose seeds 0 examples beans peas milkweed pods 0 Fruits that do not split open when mature O Achene strawberry O Caryopsis grain corn rice wheat barley 0 Nut acorn chestnut walnut Lecture 11 Genetics and Asexual Reproduction Genetic Terms 0 deoxyribonucleic acid Nucleic acids arranged in specific sequences to form genes O A adenine O G guanine O T thymine O C cytosine 0 Pairings O G C O A T 0 DNA is the code of life I are the unit of inheritance I Structures that carry genes arranged in a linear order 0 each chromosome carries specific genes 0 Many species have different numbers of chromosomes n O The number of chromosomes in a sex cell gamete Half the number of chromosomes in somatic cells or nonsex cells 2n 0 female plant sex cell is the 0 male plant sex cell is the an 0 The number of chromosomes in a somatic cell two chromosome sets one from a female parent amp one from a male parent 0 number of chromosomes exceeds diploid number of chromosomes more than two chromosome sets happens with plants not really with animals 0 Reasons for polyploids I gametes don39t reduce are diploid instead of haploid I fusion of cells from different species 0 Examples I Triploid 3 sets of chromosomes bananas watermelons I Tetraploid 4 sets of chromosomes alfalfa cotton potato I Hexaploid 6 sets of chromosomes wheat oats I Octaploid 8 sets of chromosomes strawberry sugarcane 0 Types of Chromosomes 0 members of the same chromosome pair one homologous chromosome inherited from each parent carry the same type of genes O chromosomes not members of the same pair physically different carry different genes 0 specific nucleic acid sequence located at a specific part of the chromosome basic unit of inheritance for a characteristic trait 0 trait examples in plants height yield disease resistance 39 0 specific location of a gene on a chromosome 0 One of 2 or more forms of a gene that occupy the same locus on a chromosome different alleles code for different forms of the same characteristic 0 dictate What a certain trait looks like 39 O specialized chromosome region involved in movement during cell division Reproduction 0 does not involve the union of male amp female gametes O accomplished entirely through mitosis cell division that produces genetic replicas I produces two diploid daughter cells per original mother cells chromosome number doesn39t change I all cell division is except for meiosis occurs during sexual reproduction offspring are identical replicas of parent vegetative parts used to propagate each cell has all genetic information needed to form a complete organism asexual reproduction maintains genetic purity O O O O chromosomes are uncoiled chromosomes are duplicated Chromatin condenses into chromosomes amp sister chromatids are visible nuclear envelope breaks down mitotic spindle forms Chromosomes align amp spindle fibers attach to centromeres Centromeres divide sister chromatids separate amp move to opposite OOOOO poles O chromosomes sit at opposite ends of the cell cytoplasm divides amp membrane comes apart in the middle 0 I production of seed Without sexual fertilization I example dandelion 0 I piece of vegetative tissue removed from the mother plant that can regenerate missing parts amp develop into a selfsustaining plant 0 I Joining plant parts together so they fuse amp continue growing as one plant I often used With fruit trees I used to change fruiting cultivar repair trunk damage replace injured root system