Chapter Three Notes
Chapter Three Notes CCJ 2020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Pagano on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 2020 at Florida International University taught by Juan Saiz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Criminal Justice System in Art at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Chapter Three Notes and Outline Chapter Three Understanding Crime and Victimization Cause of Crime Criminologists study nature of crime study extent of crime study cause and control crime patterns help conduct programs to reduce crime Choice Theory crime is a mater of rational Choice punishment must be sufficiently strict sure and swift outweigh any benefits of law violation Deterrent Effect assumed ability of the threat of criminal sanctions to discourage crime before is occurs Situational Crime Prevention reducing opportunities people have to commit particular crimes Oscar Newman coined key term defensible space in the 1970s Defensible space is the idea that through the use of residential architectural designs such as well lit housing projects will prevent crime MaXimize security That defensible space will make the criminal look elsewhere Types of crime prevention tactics Increase the effort to commit the crime placing steering locks on cars putting unbreakable glass on store fronts looking gates fencing yards all to increase effort to commit a crime ncrease the risks of committing the crime improving surveillance lighting creating neighborhood watch programs controlling building entrances and eXits This all will increase the risk of committing a crime General Deterrence a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal justice people will not Choose a crime if they fear legal punishment harsher the punishment the more certain the application speedier the judgement the more effective it will be Specific Deterrence punishment so severe enough to convince convicted offenders to never repeat their own criminal activity Trait Theories Cesare Lombroso Italian army physician who decided to study why it was criminal committed crimes examined many prison inmates to find a similarity atavistic anomalies animal like physical qualities Biochemical Factors focus on in uence of biochemical factors on criminal behavior some factors are said to trigger or make people susceptible to aggressive activity or responses Environmental Contaminants EXposure to chemicals such as PCB PCB was once used in insulation materials shows to effect brain functioning and intelligence levels PCB can lead to cognitive and learning dysfunctions which are associated with antisocial behaviors Genetic Factors antisocial behavior is inherited genetic makeup from parents is passed on genetic abnormality is connected to antisocial behaviors Ronald Simmons found that adolescents who posses a particular genetic makeup and are more likely to adopt an aggressive response to provocation association could be indirect Psychological Theories Behavioral Theory learned through interactions with others rewarded behavior becomes a habit Social Learning Theory ones behavior is learned through observation of social interactions direct of indirectly Sociological Theories groups that characterize a class in society unequal distribution of wealth power shared values and ideas Racial Disparity Culture of Povertv View that those in a lower class of society form a separate culture with its own distinct values and beliefs Many of these different views are in con ict with those of society Deviant Values and Cultures people who live in a rundown disorganized area who all for together to create their own lower class group Effects children and others within the community Strain emotional turmoil caused when people believe they cannot achieve desires and goals through legitimate means people who use violence to get what they want or to obtain their goals some channel frustration into antisocial behavior Critical Criminology crime results because the rich impose their own moral standards on the rest of society those in power control content and direction of the law poor person theft of property with five dollars can be punished more severely than the misappropriation of millions be a large company Theories of Victimization Victim Precipitation role victim plays in provoking criminal behavior active precipitation when victim acts and provokes by using threats or even by attacking Lifestyle Theory by reducing ones chances of victimization one most reduce risk taking behavior Routine Activities Theory crime is related to nature of normal everyday patterns one may have motivated offenders unemployed teenagers suitable targets small easy to transport goods capable guardians absence of protection services
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