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PSYC 2010- Chapter 10 Notes

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 10 Notes Psyc 2010-003

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psyc 2010-003 > PSYC 2010 Chapter 10 Notes
Morgan Dimery

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These notes cover the material that's under the human development across the life span section of the knowledge checklist (it says chapter 11 but it's really chapter 10.) This stuff will be on our ...
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 04/20/16
Chapter  10   Human  Development  Across  the  Life  Span     The  prenatal  period  of  development  is  from  conception  to  birth,  so  it  lasts  about   nine  months.  There  are  different  stages  in  the  prenatal  period:   • Germinal-­‐  this  includes  the  first  two  weeks  after  conception.  It  starts  after   the  zygote  is  created  by  fertilization.  The  zygote  must  implant  itself  into  the   uterine  wall.  The  placenta  starts  to  form  during  this  stage.     • Embryonic-­‐  this  includes  from  two  weeks  until  the  end  of  the  second  month.   Many  of  the  vital  organs  and  body  systems  begin  to  form.  This  is  a  very   vulnerable  stage.     • Fetal-­‐  this  includes  from  two  months  until  the  time  of  birth.  Muscles  and   bones  begin  to  harden,  brain  cells  multiply,  and  a  layer  of  fat  is  deposited   under  the  skin  for  insulation.  The  threshold  of  viability  is  the  age  at  which  a   baby  can  survive  being  born  prematurely.     There  are  different  things  that  can  have  an  effect  on  the  child’s  health  and  wellbeing.   It  is  important  for  the  woman  to  have  a  very  balanced  diet  throughout  her   pregnancy.  If  she  does  not  then  this  can  lead  to  birth  complications  and  neurological   deficits  in  the  child.  It  has  been  found  that  increased  levels  of  stress  are  associated   with  stillbirths,  impaired  immune  response,  heightened  vulnerability  to  infectious   diseases,  and  slowed  motor  development,  below-­‐average  cognitive  development,   and  social  deficits.  Stress  seems  to  disrupt  the  hormonal  balance  in  prenatal   development.  Drug  use  can  be  harmful  to  the  baby  because  most  drugs  are  able  to   go  through  the  placenta  to  the  fetus.  Many  babies  are  born  being  addicted  to   narcotics.  Prescribed  drugs  and  tobacco  products  are  also  harmful.  Heavy   drinking  of  alcohol  by  the  mother  can  lead  to  serious  problems  in  the  child.  Fetal   alcohol  syndrome  is  a  group  of  newborn  problems  that  are  associated  with  excessive   alcohol  consumption  during  pregnancy.  These  problems  include  microcephaly,   heart  defects,  irritability,  hyperactivity,  and  delayed  motor  development.  The   placenta  is  able  to  screen  out  some  diseases,  but  not  all.  Therefore,  some  diseases   that  the  mother  may  have  could  cause  difficulties  with  the  child.  Exposure  to   environmental  toxins  has  also  been  associated  with  problems  in  newborns.  It  has   also  been  found  that  exposure  to  all  of  these  negative  things  can  cause  problems  in   an  adult’s  life  later  on,  even  if  they  do  not  effect  them  right  at  birth.       Infants  follow  a  general  pattern  for  motor  development.  This  is  the  progression  of   muscular  coordination  required  for  physical  activities.  The  main  skills  include   grasping  and  reaching  for  objects,  manipulating  objects,  sitting  up,  crawling,   walking,  and  running.  This  development  depends  on  growth.  Maturation  has  been   associated  with  early  progress  in  these  motor  skills.  Maturation  is  the  development   that  reflects  the  gradual  unfolding  of  the  genetic  blueprint.  It  is  believed  that  the   driving  force  behind  motor  development  is  infants’  ongoing  exploration  of  their   world  and  their  need  to  master  specific  tasks.  Many  parents  look  at  developmental   norms  to  see  how  their  child  is  developing  in  relation  to  other  children.  These   indicate  the  typical  age  at  which  a  child  displays  various  behaviors  and  abilities.   This  is  okay  for  parents  to  do  as  long  as  they  don’t  expect  their  child  to  be  exactly   like  the  norms  say.  Variations  from  the  norm  are  normal  and  expected.       Harry  Haslow  did  an  experiment  about  why  children  develop  such  a  special   attachment  to  their  mothers.  He  removed  monkeys  from  their  mothers  at  birth  and   raised  them  in  a  lab  with  “substitute”  mothers.  One  type  of  mother  was  made  of   terrycloth  and  could  “comfort”  the  baby  monkeys.  The  other  type  was  made  of  wire.   Half  of  the  monkeys  were  fed  by  the  terrycloth  monkey,  and  the  other  half  were  fed   by  the  wire  monkey.  A  frightening  stimulus  was  supplied,  and  it  caused  the  monkeys   to  all  run  to  the  terrycloth  monkey,  even  if  that  was  not  the  monkey  that  fed  them.   This  shows  that  it  is  something  other  then  the  reinforcement  by  feeding  that  causes   the  attachment.  John  Bowlby  said  that  there  was  a  biological  basis  for  attachment.   Attachment  is  the  close  emotional  bond  of  affection  that  develops  between  infants   and  their  caregivers.  At  first  the  child  does  not  show  much  of  a  preference  for  one   caregiver  or  another,  but  around  6-­‐8  months  of  age  they  show  much  more   preference  for  their  mother.  When  separated  from  their  mother  during  this  time   many  infants  go  through  separation  anxiety.  This  is  emotional  distress  that  is  seen  in   many  infants  when  they  are  separated  from  someone  they  have  an  attachment  with.   Mary  Ainsworth  found  that  infant-­‐mother  attachments  fall  into  three  categories:   • Secure  attachment-­‐  infants  play  and  explore  normally  when  their  mother  is   present,  get  upset  when  she  leaves,  and  then  are  happy  again  when  she   returns.   • Anxious-­‐ambivalent  attachment  aka  resistant  attachment-­‐  they  are   anxious  even  when  their  mother  is  near,  get  upset  when  she  leaves,  and  are   not  easily  calmed  when  she  returns.     • Avoidant  attachment-­‐  these  children  seek  little  attachment  to  their  mothers   and  do  not  really  get  distressed  when  she  leaves.     Mothers  who  are  more  sensitive  tend  to  have  infants  who  have  secure  attachment.   Culture  does  not  seem  to  affect  attachment,  although  some  places  have  higher  rates   for  secure  attachments  than  others  do.       Children  also  go  through  the  stages  of  language  development.  It  tends  to  be  at  the   same  pace  for  most  children  no  matter  their  culture.  Research  has  shown  that   infants  seem  to  learn  some  vowels  while  they  are  still  in  the  womb.  During  the  first   six  months  of  life  their  language  is  mostly  just  crying,  cooing,  and  laughter.  Then  the   infant  will  begin  to  babble  and  eventually  this  starts  to  resemble  the  language   spoken  by  people  in  the  child’s  environment.  Children  learn  the  meaning  of  words   before  they  can  speak,  and  most  children  say  their  first  words  around  10-­‐13  months   of  age.  An  infant’s  receptive  vocabulary  is  larger  than  their  productive   vocabulary.  This  means  that  they  can  comprehend  more  words  than  they  can   actually  say  themselves.    A  vocabulary  spurt  seems  to  occur  around  18  months,   which  is  when  toddlers  realize  that  everything  has  a  name.  Fast  mapping  seems  to   be  one  of  the  reasons  behind  this.  This  is  the  process  by  which  children  map  a  word   onto  an  underlying  concept  after  only  one  exposure.  Some  errors  do  occur,  such  as   overextension  or  underextension.  Overextension  is  when  a  child  incorrectly  uses  a   word  to  describe  a  wider  set  of  objects  or  actions  than  it  is  meant  for.  This  could  be   like  child  calling  anything  that  is  round  an  apple.  Underextensions  are  when  the   child  uses  a  word  to  describe  a  narrower  set  of  objects  than  it  is  meant  for.  This   could  be  like  the  child  only  referring  to  their  favorite  doll  as  a  doll.  When  children   first  start  to  combine  words  into  sentences,  this  is  called  telegraphic  speech.  It   consists  mostly  of  content  words,  articles,  and  prepositions.  Children  will  start  to  be   able  to  say  more  complex  ideas,  but  their  grammar  might  not  always  be  correct.  This   is  called  overregularizations.  This  occurs  when  the  child  applies  grammar  rules   somewhere  that  they  are  not  needed.       Erikson  came  up  with  a  theory  of  development  that  was  a  series  of  psychosocial   crises.  He  had  a  stage  theory,  which  is  that  each  stage  brings  a  psychosocial  crisis   that  involves  transitions  in  important  social  relationships.  He  said  that  personality  is   shaped  by  how  these  crises  are  dealt  with.       Jean  Piaget  has  the  theory  of  cognitive  development.  This  is  the  transition  in   youngsters’  patterns  of  thinking.  It  includes  reasoning,  remembering,  and  problem   solving.  The  stages  are  as  follows:   • Sensorimotor  period-­‐  birth-­‐2.  This  is  when  infants  begin  to  coordinate  their   sensory  input  with  their  motor  actions.  The  child  develops  object   permanence.  This  is  when  a  child  is  able  to  know  that  an  object  is  still  there   even  if  they  cannot  see  it.     • Preoperational  period-­‐  2-­‐7.  Children  start  to  develop  irreversibility,   centration,  and  egocentrism.  Irreversibility  is  the  fact  that  once  a  child  learns   something,  they  will  not  understand  how  they  ever  thought  it  was  another   way.  Centration  is  when  a  child  just  focuses  on  one  aspect  of  a  problem,  and   ignores  everything  else.  Egocentrism  is  the  fact  that  they  are  not  able  to  share   another  person’s  viewpoint.  They  also  believe  in  animism,  which  is  that  all   things  are  living.     • Concrete  operational  period-­‐  7-­‐11.  Children  are  now  able  to  perform   operations  on  images  of  tangible  objects  and  actual  events.  The  child  master   reversibility,  which  is  the  ability  to  mentally  undo  an  action.  They  will  also   master  decentration,  which  is  the  ability  to  focus  on  more  than  one  aspect  of   a  problem  at  a  time.  There  is  a  decrease  in  egocentrism  and  the  child  also   masters  conservation.  This  is  the  fact  that  just  because  the  shape  or   appearance  of  something  changes,  that  doesn’t  mean  that  the  quantity  is   different.  Children  are  now  able  to  solve  problems  that  involve  hierarchical   classification.     • Formal  operational  period-­‐  11-­‐adulthood.  Children  can  now  apply  their   operations  to  abstract  concepts  as  well  as  concrete.  They  start  to  enjoy   hypothetical  possibilities  and  questions.     There  are  some  criticisms  of  his  theory  because  he  underestimated  young  children’s   cognitive  development.  It  has  also  been  found  that  patterns  of  thinking  are  present   in  more  than  one  stage  of  development.    This  development  also  differs  from  child  to   child  depending  on  things  like  culture.     Lev  Vygotsky  has  the  sociocultural  theory,  which  stresses  the  importance  of   culture  and  language  in  cognitive  development.  He  said  that  development  is  highly   influenced  by  interactions  among  parents,  teachers,  and  other  people.  He  said  that   language  served  as  the  foundation  for  cognitive  development.       Researchers  have  found  that  children  can  know  about  certain  things  that  they  have   had  no  opportunity  to  learn  about,  which  shows  that  some  cognitive  abilities  may  be   innate.       Laurence  Kohlberg  had  a  theory  of  moral  development.  The  stages  are:   • Punishment  orientation-­‐  right  and  wrong  is  determined  by  what  is   punished  and  what  is  not   • Naïve  reward  orientation-­‐  right  and  wrong  is  determined  by  what  is   rewarded  and  what  is  not   • Good  boy/good  girl  orientation-­‐  right  and  wrong  is  determined  by  close   others’  approval  or  disapproval   • Authority  orientation-­‐  right  and  wrong  is  determined  by  society’s  rules   and  laws,  which  should  be  obeyed  rigidly   • Social  contract  orientation-­‐  right  and  wrong  is  determined  by  society’s   rules,  which  are  viewed  as  fallible  rather  than  absolute   • Individual  principles  and  conscience  orientation-­‐  right  and  wrong  is   determined  by  abstract  ethical  principles  that  emphasize  equity  and  justice     Adolescence  is  the  bridge  between  childhood  and  adulthood.  There  are  many   significant  moral,  cognitive,  and  social  changes  during  this  time.  One  of  the  things  is   the  development  of  secondary  sex  characteristics.  These  are  things  that  are  not   essential  for  reproduction,  but  distinguish  a  male  from  a  female.  Kids  will  reach   puberty,  which  is  when  sexual  functions  reach  maturity  and  their  primary  sex   characteristics  are  fully  developed.  This  marks  the  beginning  of  adolescence.   Puberty  for  females  is  usually  signaled  by  menarche,  which  is  the  first  occurrence  of   a  menstrual  cycle.  For  males  it  is  signaled  by  spermarche,  which  is  the  first   occurrence  of  an  ejaculation.  There  are  also  neurological  changes  that  take  place   during  adolescence.  One  of  these  things  is  that  neurons  are  becoming  more   myelinated.  It  has  been  observed  that  the  prefrontal  cortex  is  the  last  brain   structure  to  be  fully  mature.  The  maturation  may  not  be  complete  until  the  mid  20’s.   Erikson  said  that  the  main  struggle  during  adolescence  is  forming  a  clear  sense  of   identity.  There  are  different  identity  stages:   • Diffusion-­‐  state  of  rudderless  apathy,  no  commitment  to  ideology   • Foreclosure-­‐  premature  commitment  to  values,  visions,  and  roles   • Moratorium-­‐  delaying  commitment  for  a  while  to  experiment  with   alternative  ideologies  and  careers   • Achievement-­‐  arriving  at  a  sense  of  self  and  direction  after  some   consideration  of  alternative  possibilities     There  are  some  adjustments  and  changes  that  take  place  during  adulthood.  Erikson   divided  adulthood  into  3  stages:   • Intimacy  vs.  isolation-­‐  the  key  concern  is  whether  one  can  develop  the   capacity  to  share  intimacy  with  others   • Generativity  vs.  self-­‐absorption-­‐  key  challenge  is  to  acquire  a  genuine   concern  for  other  welfare  of  future  generations   • Integrity  vs.  despair-­‐  key  challenge  is  to  avoid  the  tendency  to  dwell  on  the   mistakes  of  the  past  and  on  one’s  imminent  death  (during  retirement)   Adults  will  also  experience  an  adjustment  to  marriage.  Optimism  can  either  help   or  hurt  the  marriage.  The  personality  trait  of  optimism  is  good  because  it  means  that   good  outcomes  are  expected  and  productive  problem  solving  is  used.  Relationship-­‐ specific  optimism  is  not  good  because  that  means  that  someone  always  thinks  things   will  be  good  in  the  marriage.  They  feel  like  no  problems  will  ever  come  up  and  need   to  be  worked  through.  There  has  also  been  an  association  with  premarital   cohabitation  and  divorce  rates.  There  is  also  an  adjustment  to  parenthood.  The   first  child  can  be  emotionally  draining  and  seems  to  have  more  of  an  impact  on   mothers  than  fathers.  Dr.  Brainerd  says  that  the  empty  nest  syndrome  is  BS.  He  said   that  yes  your  parents  love  you  but  now  that  you’re  gone  they  have  an  extra  room  in   their  house,  more  time  alone,  and  more  spending  money.       Some  physical  changes  that  occur  with  adulthood  include  hair  thinning  and  graying,   and  body  fat  increase.  Eyesight  starts  to  become  worse.  Women  go  through   menopause.  The  amount  of  brain  tissue  and  the  brain  weight’s  declines  with  age.   This  can  influence  diseases  such  as  dementia.  Memory  can  also  be  affected  with  age.   Elizabeth  Kuber-­‐Ross  has  five  stages  for  death  and  dying:   • Denial   • Anger   • Bargaining  with  God  for  more  time   • Depression   • Acceptance     Personal  Application-­‐  Understanding  Gender  Differences     • Females  seem  to  have  an  advantage  with  verbal  skills,  while  males  seem  to   have  an  advantage  with  mathematical  skills   • Males  tend  to  be  more  physically  aggressive  than  females  


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