New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 1-4 Basic Knowledge Notes

by: Kazendi Simon

Week 1-4 Basic Knowledge Notes 1010

Kazendi Simon
GPA 3.8
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Critical Thinking

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Critical Thinking notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes will cover the necessary knowledge needed to understand the Class/Online work.
Critical Thinking
Mark Daniel Kemp
Class Notes
arugments, Statements, logical fallacy




Popular in Critical Thinking

Popular in Political Science, Philosophy, & Religion

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kazendi Simon on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1010 at Georgia State University taught by Mark Daniel Kemp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in Political Science, Philosophy, & Religion at Georgia State University.

Popular in Political Science, Philosophy, & Religion


Reviews for Week 1-4 Basic Knowledge Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/20/16
Critical Thinking 1010 Notes Basic Needs to Know Argument: A set of statements, some of which serve as premises, one of which serves as a  conclusion, such that the premises purport to give evidence for the conclusion. The definition employs two technical terms: premise, and conclusion.  Clarifying these terms  requires three additional definitions: Premise: A premise is a statement that purports to give evidence for the conclusion.   Evidence: To say that a statement A is evidence for another statement B is to say that if A were  true, this would provide some reason to believe that B is true.  Conclusion: The statement in an argument that is supposedly supported by the evidence. The following words and phrases indicate that what follows is probably the conclusion of an  argument: Therefore, thus, for that reason, hence, it follows that. They indicate that what follows is probably a premise of the argument: Because, Since, For, For  the reason that. Standard Form:  Usually we find arguments expressed in ordinary prose.  But as noted, when  we are evaluating arguments it is a good idea to separate the premises from the conclusion, and  to put the argument into “standard form.” Understanding Argument Types Deductively Valid Argument (sometimes called just a “deductive argument” or a “valid  argument”):  An argument is deductively valid just in case it has the following property:  If the  premises are true, then the conclusion cannot possibly be false. Inductive Argument (or ‘induction’):  A non­deductive argument in which characteristics of  individuals not in a sample are inferred from the characteristics of individuals in a sample.  Abductive argument (or ‘abduction’): A form of non­deductive inference, also called  “inference to the best explanation” in which a hypothesis is supported on the ground that it is the  best explanation for some observed phenomenon. Testing for Validity: Only deductive arguments can be valid.  Abductive and inductive  arguments are never valid, even if they are excellent arguments that provide good reasons in  support of their conclusion. Notice that the conclusions of inductive and abductive arguments are only probable, not certain.  All good arguments share two characteristics: They have true premises. & They have a proper  form. Proper Form test: is a Deductive argument that provided the premises which if true show  that the conclusion must be true. However, the premises and conclusion of an argument do not  have to be true in order for the argument to be valid.  In fact, validity has nothing to do with  truth.   Common Fallacies  Ad hominem (Latin, "against the man"): Attack the author of the argument rather than the  argument itself. A red herring: speaker attempts to distract an audience by deviating from the topic at hand by  introducing a separate argument the speaker believes is easier to speak to. Appeal to tradition (argumentum ad antiquitatem): a conclusion supported solely because it  has long been held to be true. Appeal to novelty (argumentum novitatis, argumentum ad antiquitatis): where a proposal is  claimed to be superior or better solely because it is new or modern. Straw man fallacy: an argument based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position. Appeal to fear: a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made by increasing  fear and prejudice towards the opposing side Appeal to pity (argumentum ad misericordiam): an argument attempts to induce pity to sway  opponents Argumentum ad populum (appeal to widespread belief, bandwagon argument, appeal to  the majority, appeal to the people): where a proposition is claimed to be true or good solely  because many people believe it to be so The Easy Target fallacy occurs in three steps. First, someone makes an inaccurate claim about  the views held by someone else. Second, the person argues that the inaccurately described view  is false. Finally, the person asserts that this argument shows that the accurate view is false. Someone commits the fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance when he claims that a statement is true  because it hasn’t been shown to be false. Understanding Statement Types Empirical statements are statements that report what people observe through their senses.  When you observe with your senses, you're getting direct empirical evidence. The reports of what others have experienced are testimonial statements. From your perspective, your friend's statement that it has started to rain and Clara's statement are examples of testimony. The second statement in each pair is a definitional statement, a report about how a word is  used. Experts are people who have specialized knowledge about a particular field. You should use  five criteria to determine whether a statement by an expert may be used as an assumed premise:  appropriate credentials, reliability, lack of bias, appropriate area of expertise, and expert  consensus. An argument that contains a premise that's assumed on the basis of expertise but is about an issue outside an expert's area of expertise commits the fallacy of Inappropriate Expertise. If most  experts cannot agree about the truth of a statement, you shouldn't use that statement as an  assumed premise. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.