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I-O Psych Notes Week 15

by: Freddi Marsillo

I-O Psych Notes Week 15 PSYC 2544

Freddi Marsillo
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

Notes from Week 15 of class - teams in organizations, training methods
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Blacksmith, N
Class Notes
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
25 ?




Popular in Industrial/Organizational Psychology

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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/20/16
I-O Psych Notes Week 15 4/20/16 5:37 PM Teams in Organizations Increase in Need for Teams Reasons for increased use of teams: • Work can be performed concurrently rather than sequentially • Innovation and creativity promoted • Enable quick, effective development/delivery of products and services • Organizations learn and retain learning more effectively • More complex work Groups and Teams: Definitions • Groups include members who may work together or may just share some resources • Teams include members whose tasks are interdependent; work towards a common goal and share responsibility for outcomes • Group and team – essentially interchangeable 5 Stages of Group Development 1) Orientation (forming) – members becoming familiar with one another and the group, dependency and inclusion issues 2) Conflict (storming) – disagreement over procedures; expression of dissatisfaction; tension among members; antagonism toward leader • Conflict can be a good thing if it’s task-based 3) Structure (norming) – growth of cohesiveness and unity; establishment of roles, standards, and relationships; increased trust, communication 4) Work (performing) – goal achievement; high task orientation; emphasis on performance and production 5) Dissolution (adjourning) – termination of roles; completion of tasks; reduction of dependency A Model of Team Effectiveness Input-Process-Output Model • Enables understanding of how teams perform and how to maximize performance • Input variables: organization context, task characteristics, team completion • Process variables: norms, decision making, communication, coordination, cohesion • Output variables: productivity/performance, member satisfaction, innovation Team Inputs Organizational context • Provide necessary resources Team task • Task to be performed Team composition • Attributes of team members • Shared mental models (being on the same page) Team diversity • Demographic and psychological diversity Team Processes Norms • Informal rules of a team Communication and coordination • Social loafing Cohesion • Degree of desire to remain in team Decision making • Groupthink Team Outputs • Team performance o Often reflected in objective measures o Team innovation o Team member well-being Special Issues in Teams Team appraisal and feedback • Should provide team with information needed to identify team problems and further develop team capabilities • Extent to which team behaviors and outputs can be measured must be considered Virtual Teams • Composed of widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal; linked through technology • Pose several advantages to organizations • Trust is a critical concern; increase via: o Virtual-collaboration, virtual-socialization, and virtual- communication behaviors Team Training • Involves coordinating performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal • 4 Strategies o Cross-training o Team coordination training o Team leader training o Guided Team Self-Correction Training Team Diversity Demographic diversity • Differences in observable attributes or demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity Psychological diversity • Differences in underlying attributes such as skills, abilities, personality characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and values; may also include function, occupational, and educational backgrounds Cultural Issues in Teams Applying Hofstede’s cultural dimensions • Implications for teams o Individualism vs. collectivism o Long-term vs. short-term orientation • Effect of cultural and national backgrounds of team members Training & Development Training • Systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes resulting in improved performance in another environment • Basic foundation for training programs is learning Learning • Relatively permanent change in behavior and human capabilities produced by experience and practice Training, Learning, & Performance Training increases probability of learning and learning increases probability of better job performance Learning & Motivational Theories Applied to Training • Reinforcement theory • Social learning theory o Watching other people behave, learning from others. Can apply to on the job training – you’re watching other people while you’re on the job • Goal-setting theory • Apply these theories to training Developing Training Programs Goldstein & Ford’s Training Model Training Needs Analysis 3 step process • Organizational analysis • Task analysis • Person analysis Required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed (organizational), what needs to be trained (task), and who will be trained (person • Basically the same as job analysis Organizational Analysis Examines: • Organization’s goals and values • Available resources • Environment • Culture/climate of organization Task Analysis • Examines what employees must do to perform job properly • Can consist of o Developing task statements o Determining homogeneous task clusters o Determining KSAOs Person Analysis • Identifies which indiviuslas within organization should receive training and what kid of instruction they need • Assessments of trainee personality, etc. Trainee Characteristics Goal-orientation • Performance orientation o Concerned with doing well • Mastery orientation o Concerned with increasing competence • Experience level • Trainee motivation • Trainee readiness Learning Processes in Training Principles of Learning Active practice • Actively participating in training/work tasks Automaticity • Occurs when tasks can be performed with limited attention • Likely to develop when learners are given extra learning opportunities (overlearning) Whole learning • When entire task is practiced at once Part learning • When subtasks are practiced separately and later combined Massed practice • Individuals practice task continuously and without rest Distributed practice • Rest intervals between practice sessions • Generally results in more efficient learning and retention than massed practice Methods of Training Content and Methods of Training Training methods • 4 basic principles o 1) present relevant information and content to be learned o 2) demonstrate KSAOs to be learned o create opportunities for trainees to practice skills o provide feedback On-Site Training Methods On the job training • Trainees observe and learn from more experienced employees Job rotation • Employees move to various jobs, departments, or areas of company Off-Site Training Methods Classroom lectures Simulators • Controlled reproducibility • Safety considerations • Learning considerations E-learning (online training, webinar) Newer Methods of Training • Adaptive/computer-based training • Tailored/personalized learning o Allow trainees to individualize their learning experience o Trainees have more control over instruction Fidelity Extent to which task trained is similar to task required by job • Physical fidelity o Extent to which training task mirrors physical features of task performed on job • Psychological fidelity o Extent to which training task helps trainees develop KSAOs necessary to perform job 4/20/16 5:37 PM 4/20/16 5:37 PM


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