Chapter 6 & 7 notes
Chapter 6 & 7 notes
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Chapter 6 Past Tenses in Narration Compound past pass compose 1 Used in conversationinformal narrative to expresses a series of successive actions each of which serves to push forward the plot of the narrative 2 Mental state analogy used to express a change of mental state Imperfect imparfait 1 Describes a past state of beingaction that was going on when another action took placeinterrupted The background of the principal action 0 Imperfect actions have no time frame in reference to the principal action nor do they take place successively These actions just quotgo onquot 0 Rule of thumb if the verb ends in ing in English use the imperfect 0 Mental state analogy used to indicate a mental state in the past there is no beginning or end to a mental state in terms of immediate actions 2 May also express habitualrepeated actions In English subject used towoud verb Which to use Shoudlusethepass compos Checklist a Does the action make the plot move forward quotadvance the narrativequot This can be to the smallest degree so long as it does it a Does the action have a speci c time frame Whether the time frame be long or short is irrelevant as long as it is de ned a Is the action a past face and not background used to set up the narrative ShoudIusetheimparfait Checklist a Is the action describing a state in order to set up the background for the main plot a Is it a continuing action that is then interrupted by the main action a Can the past action be expressed in English by subject waswere ing a Is the action repeated regularly and can be expressed in English by subject used towoud verb a Is it a question of state of mind rather than a change of state of mind Pass Compos vs lmparfait Graphically If we represented time graphically the imperfect would be the straight line that indicates the passing ow of time Actions hovering above the line are going one while something else is going on The pass comps notez also the pass simple may be represented by points Xs on the line Each X indicates an interrupting action which collectively take place successively on the time line Simple Past pass simple 1 Used to express a series of successive actions It is used in literary writing as opposed to casual writing like letters It is not used in spoke French except for very formal lecturesorations 2 Sometimes states a past fact 3 Why use it over the pass compose It is a single form smoother effect Notez using the pass simple instead of the pass compos does not change how the imparfait is used in any way Problem Words 1 Go a I m going I went etc AIer place that one is going If the place has already been mentioned then use the adverb yto refer to it DO NOT used allerwithout indication of destinationadverb y l m going is often expressed as je m en vais which translates to I m going away English go prepositiongo adverb French separate verbs Go back retourner Go back home rentrer Go by passer Go down descendre Go in entrer Go out sortir Go through across tra verser Go to ward se diriger vers Go up monter Go With accompagner Go to attendbe present at l Assisterl assistera only with certain places and occasions l Allera generally safe to express the same idea 2 Happen a 5e passer i Use when happen take place and 1 there is no personal indirect object 2 the subject is impersonal and somewhat inde nite Ex Qu est ce qui s est passe Notez if the subject is de nite do not use 5e passer do not use 5e passerto say something happens to someone b Arriver i Can be used in same circumstances as 5e passer ii Additionally it may be used when 1 there is a personal indirect object something happens to someone and 2 when the subject is personal and de n e Ex Qu est ce qui est arrive Quand estce que cet accident est arrive c Someone happened to do something happen to verb happen by chance i verb par hazard tout a fait far hazard Ex j e tais la par hazard Nous avons rencontre jean dans la rue tout a fait par hazard d Happen it happens that someone happens to i l se trouve i se trouve justement que main part of the sentence Ex I se trouve que j habitais dans e meme immeube que Monsieur Martin I happen to live in the same building as Mr Martin e How does it happen that i Comments faiti que Can be followed by the indicative or the subjunctive Ex Comment se faitii que vous avezayez achet une nouvelle voiture 3 Hear a Entendre to hear someonesomething b Entendre parer de to hear of someonesomething C Entendre o ire que to hear that o Avoir o39es nouveles derece voir o39es nouveles de to hear from someone Chapter 7 Possessives I Possessive Adjectives Singular Plural Singular Plural Mas Fem Mas Fem Mon Ma Mes Notre Notre Nos Ton Ta Tes Votre Votre Vos Son sa Ses eur eur leurs Notez these are used with feminine nouns when the next immediate word in the sentence begins with a vowel sound 0 Possessive adjectives agree in gender and number with the thing they possess notthe possessor Each noun in a sentence gets its own possessive adjective Cannot use one possessive adjective for a list of nouns even if the same possessive adjective would be used 0 Ex Son pe re et sa mere sont parts ce matn Vs Son pe re et fre re parts ce matn ll Possessive Adjectives the body a Possession body parts in general Typically the French use the de nite article lelaIes where English uses a possessive article to talk about body parts i Circumstances where French uses the possessive 1 Ambiguity would result from use of the de nite article 2 The part of the body is modi ed 3 The part of the body is the subject of the sentence see b ii Possession action with a part of one39s own body French uses the de nite article not the possessive Formation Subject Verb De nite Article Noun part of body iii Possession action on part of one39s own body French uses the de nite article a re exive pronoun here Formation Subject re exive pronoun verb de nite article noun body part iv Possession action on someone else s body The noun is modi ed by the de nite article and an indirect object pronoun is placed before the verb 1 Ex Marie lave la gure dejean L infirmie re frotte le dos du malade 2 v Attitudestate of being of part of the body Use the de nite article here rather than the possessive b Possession body part when it is the subject of the sentence French generally avoids having a body part as the subject of the sentence Pair with avoirto make it the object of the sentence His hair is dark H l a les cheveux bruns Ill Possessive Pronouns Singular Plural Mas Fem Mas Fem Le mien La Les Les Mine mienne miens miennes Le tien La tienne Les tiens Les Yours Uennes Le sien La Les siens Les His sienne siennes hers its Le notre La notre Les Les Ours notres notres Le votre La votre Les Les Yours votres votres Le leur La leur Les leurs Les laurs Theirs 0 Possessive pronouns agree in gender and number with the thing they possess notthe possessor Just like possessive adjectives 0 They take the place of nouns modi ed by a possessive adjective 0 They contract with a and de Ex V05 econs sont facies les miennes sont plus dif cies Elle expiquera cea a son pe re je eXpiquerai au mien Possessive pronoun vs a disjunctive pronoun vs appartenir 0 Possessive pronoun stresses the idea of the possesson 0 A disjunctive pronoun most common Problem Words 1 lntend a Penser in nitive b Compter in nitive c Avoir intenti0n de in nitive 2 Introduce a Introduce a person presenter Notez lntroduire most often means insert 3 Knock a There is no direct translation for a knock at the door One may use frappera la porte or entrendre frapper a la porte 4 Know a know be acquainted with l conna tre b know meetget acquainted with l compound past amp simple past of conna tre c know be familiar with works places etc I conna tre d know know from memory l savoir e know know from study l savoir f know be aware of l savoir 9 know know how to l savoir in nitive
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