PHIL / RLST 110 Chrstianity and other religions lecture
PHIL / RLST 110 Chrstianity and other religions lecture 110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kevin Thayyil on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 110 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Jontathan Ebel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World Religions in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Christianity /Islam (Day5) Monday, April 18, 2016 11:02 AM Anabaptists Review from last session 1. Baptism is optional 2. Sacraments not efficacious. Just Two - Baptism and Lord's Supper 3. No religious imagery 4. Worship service - Sermon and readings 5. Separation from the corrupt world; rejection of government Anabaptist Martyrdom 1. 1st martyr:Feliz Manz, 1527, in Zurich, Switzerland 2. Third Baptism 3. Result: martyrdom as part of Anabaptist Culture Persecutionof Christians by Christians across the entire spectrum of belief For Christianity the Other religion is often Christianity Christianity and Other religions I. Theological Frame: Exclusivism 1. Traditional Christian perspective One saviour, One church, one faith 2. Jewish perspective:"righteous gentiles have a share in the world to come." 3. Rationale for imposing orthodoxy by force among Christianity Salvations of Christian - protected (People must not be confused) Worship of true God obligatory - no idolatry, no blasphemy may be tolerated II. Christian Religious Intolerance - The Crusades 1. Original Enemy:Muslims in control of Holy Land 2. Actual Enemies: Jews, Muslims, and 'other' Christians 3. Spiritual benefits of violence? First Crusade preached by the Urban II, beginning in 1095: - "Undertake this journey for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the impershiable glory of the Kingdom of Heaven." (Pope Urban II, quoted by Robert the monk) - "When an armed attack is made upon the enemy,let this one cry be raised by al lthe soldiers of God : " It is the will of God! It is the will of God!' (Pope Urban II) 4. Military Results of First Crusade, 1096-1099 Christian conquest of Jerusalem Late Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1187 5. First crusade: Religious Violence against Jews Turning point for Christian -Jewish Relations 1096:Massacres of Jewish Communitiesin the Rhineland (Germany)by Crusading Armies. Convertto Christianity or Die 6. Fourth Crusade: Religious Violence against the orthodoxChristians [very significant] Crusaders' Sack of the Constantinople,1204 Crusaders' Sack of the Constantinople,1204 Wanted to take the war to the Muslims. Changed goal. Sacked the eastern orthodoxy in Constantinople and est. a Latin empire leading to the great schism Latin Empire, 1204-61 Great Schism of 1054 III. Christian and Religious Violence: the reformation Debacle of religious wars: Germany, France, Netherlands, England, the 30 years' war 1618-48in central Europe 1/3 pop. perished IV. Discourses of Religious Toleration;Toleration is legally mandated ○ Religious Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Limited toleration of Lutheran and Catholics ○ Westphalian Peace, 1648(end 30 year war) Tolerationof Lutherans, Catholics and Calvinist ○ John Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration, 1689 Wanted people tolerant to everything. Catholics (alliance to foreign pope) and atheists ( no oath taking ability) ○ King Frederick II of Prussia: (tried to open up to immigration) "Everyonemust find his salvation in his own way" V. Christian-Jewish Realtions 1. Anti-Judaism in the New Testament 2. Limited (and uneven) toleration of Judaism in Medieval Europe Papal policy 3. Age of Atrocities: 1096-ca 1550/1600 Persecutions Pogroms Expulsions (England first completeexpulsion)(France in 1394)(Germanyby 1500) (Spain was worst- destroyed largest Jewish community - 300,000 - Ferdinand and Isabella) 4. Re-emergenceand expansion of Tolerationof Judaism, 1550/1600onward ○ Renaissance Innovations: Christian intellectuals study Judaism ○ Debacle of European Christianity and Resulting Policies of toleration ○ Impact of Successful Christian-Jewish Co-existence:Amsterdam,England, USA etc. 5. Holocaust and Aftermath ○ 6 million Jews murdered in Europe ○ Impact on Christianity Many Christian denominationsacknowledged guilt for history of anti-Semitism Impetus for vastly stronger ecumenical 6. - International Council of Christians and Jews 1947 "…A concern for the Christian approach to the Jewish people confronts us inescapably, as we meet to look with open and penitent eyes on man's disorder and to rediscover together God's eternal purpose for His Church... No people in His one world have suffered more bitterly from the disorder of man than the Jewish people... we cannot forget that we meet only five years after the exterminationof 6 million Jews. To the Jews our God has bound us in a special solidarity linking our destinies together in His design. We call upon all our churches to make this concern their own…" VI. Theologies of Ecumenism and Dialogue 1. Christian denominations are addressing all religion from a Christian perspective,especially the other Christian denominations,Judaism and Islam 2. Emergence of non-exclusivisttheologies of salvation 2. Emergence of non-exclusivisttheologies of salvation 3. Particular significance for Christian 1. Christian-Christian reconciliation i. 1999:Joint declaration of Justification (Catholicism and Lutheranism) Catholic and Lutheran churches are in agreementon somethings 2. Christian-Jewish dialogue i. 1965 "nostrae aetate' (Vatican II) 1) Jews didn’t kill Jesus 2) Jews still are in a covenant with God 3) They will find salvation through Judaism 3. Christian-Muslim Dialog "But the plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator, in the first place among whom are the Muslims: these profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, mankind's judge on the last day." Vatican Il ("Lumen Gentium," 1964) "The aim of the dialog consists first in leading both religions to create mutual respect and better understanding of each other. Their relations are made difficult by a centuries-old history characterized by many misunderstandings..." (World Council of Churches, Christian-Muslim Conversationsin Cartigny, 1969) "Turning to mutual respect in interreligious relations, especially between Christians and Muslims, we are called respect the religion of the other, its teachings, its symbols, its values. Particular respect is due to religious leaders and to places of worship. How painful are attacks on one or other of these!" --(Pope Francis I, July 20, 2016)