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ECOL 182R Diversity of Eukaryotes Lecture: Deuterostomes

by: Jenna Pimentel

ECOL 182R Diversity of Eukaryotes Lecture: Deuterostomes ECOL 182R

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Science > ECOL 182R > ECOL 182R Diversity of Eukaryotes Lecture Deuterostomes
Jenna Pimentel
U of M
GPA 3.0
Introductory Biology II
Bonine, Hunter, Martinez

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About this Document

This is a copy of the lecture slides along with inserted text where parts in the slides are blank. Helpful details are noted at the left- and right-hand sides. Near the end is a general outline of ...
Introductory Biology II
Bonine, Hunter, Martinez
Class Notes
ecol, 182R, hunter, bonine, martinez, Ecology, Biology, diversity, eukaryotes, deuterostomes, University, arizona
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Pimentel on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL 182R at University of Arizona taught by Bonine, Hunter, Martinez in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 245 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Science at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 02/19/15
p2 Plat helminthes PROTO Lophotrochozoans Y STOMES quotquote39 a Mollusca Nemmda Q DEUTEROSTOMES l i Arthropodaamp 39 Deuterostomes Arthropoda the last but not least ofthe Protostomes p3 Diversity ofArthropoda jointed feet quot 7 Some examples General morphology Jointed appendaqes Body seqmented beetles External or exol skeleton Passive respiration duct system arachnids crustaceans I I Diversity of DiverSIty ofArthropoda Arthropoda Limits to size Remember surface volume relationships Surface area increases as a square function Weight like volume increases as cube function a 39 abrasion press What are Its drawbacks When you molt you are vulnerable Page IC p7 Limits to size of arthropods An exoskeleton is a series of tubes As body size increases surface area Co39lapsed ant and size of exoskeleton increases as a squared function Because area is 2 w dimensional While volume weight of insects to be supported increases as a cu bed function Volume is 3 dimensional For both reasons the exoskeleton of insects would collapse under giant insect weight J E E 4 scaled size Chelicerata includes scorpions spiders amp mites p11 Crustacea amp Hexapoda First appendages are antennae p8 Arthropoda Four subphyla Crustacea Hexapoda Myriapoda Chelicerata Crustacea Hexapoda spodoxquv ges Myriapoda Fig 331 in part Chelicerata p10 Chelicerata Morphology First set of appendages modi ed into pincers Qr fangs Feeding niches Mostly predatory but mites do almost everything herbivores predators parasites k M I a M longhorned beetle 3 hugeass lobster Crustacea are the dominant marine arthropods Are there any terrestrial crustaceansland crabs ronpoly39s p12 each segment of thorax and abdomen usually has an appendage appendages may be branched k x PROTOPODlTE p15 And last but not least the Hexapoda 6 legs insects a couple of small groups quot73 Ant removing droplet of honeydew from aphid Hexapoda Diversity of Arthropoda Myriapoda lots of legs and many segments millipedes thousands of feet 1 Three body sections head thorax abdomen centipedes L hundreds of feet p14 p16 2 Six legs animals B FLIES ampMOTHS FL39ES OTHER INSECTS OTHER ARTHROPOD CHORDAT Diversity of all described species of p18 73 INSECTS 12 OTHER ARTHROPODS 4 CHORDATES 11 ALL OTHER PHYLA Insect species Described vertebrate species 38000 Described mammal species 4 lm What does it mean to describe a species Described insect species 7 QQQ Many undescribed insects estimates of 2 millio p19 distinguis what con IJ n to 30 million p20 Why have insects been so evolutionarily successful 1 Sma size habitat becomes more complex as you become smaller allows more subdivision p21 Why have insects been so evolutionarily successful 2 Flight more movement and rapid colonization of Iants p22 Why have Insects been so evolutionarily successful 3de chanqe in bodv plan during development p23 Diversity of all described species of animals B FLIES FLIES amp MOTHS What do these insect groups have in common A majority of all animal species are insects with complete metamorphosis BEETLES from grubby things to more insecty things 9 3 Complete metamorphosis change in body plan allows specialization of immature er feeding and growth of L adults fordispersal mm Page 4 4 The Deuterostomes Echinodermata amp m r quot39 Chordata internal skeleton The lgc h i node rymata W Sea stars sea urchins p27 Sea cucumbers Sand dollars brittle stars p29 symmetrical Exoskeleton ofinterlocking calcium carbonate plates covered by epidermis Water lled canal system leads to tube feetquot for moving or manipulating things feet can be extended or retracted with water pressure tube feet video legs sequentially planting down and moving along L Page 5 C The Echinodermata Feeding Predacious sea stars or grazers urchins or lter feeders sea cucumbers others p31 Favorite food of sea stars is bivalves like clams and mussels how do they eat them After dinner empty shell everted stomach and The Chordata Tunicates p35 As adults look like sponges But larvae have the de ning features of chordates What features in particular Notochord Dorsal hollow nerve cord backbone dorsal hol notochord unicate larva p32 The Echinodermata Feeding 1 Attach themselves to both shells 2 Exert constant suction until poor bivalves muscles exhausted 3 Evert their mouthparts and stomach into crack p34 Last but hardly least the Chordata Chordates Vertebrates two small groups the Tunicates and the Lancelates Tunicates low nerve C The Chordata are defined by p3936 a dorsal hollow nerve cord and a notochord supporting the nerve cord for at least part of life Notochord Neural tube Mouth PageGW W p37 p38 The general vertebrate body plan I nrsal fi In vertebrates Dorsal nervous h n h r i r rl in system development ofthe animal and is H interna 3keeton replaced by the vertebral column that if Organs suspended in Elle vertebrate body surrounds the nerve cord Planmdm coelom mam Well developed Musclcm r 39 quot 77quot vou5 syslem spam 7 circulatory system em bn A 39 an internal Kid39s wuth heart Gunad i and organsquot Cudllllll g gal Peritoneum p39 p40 Evolution of vertebrates Ancestral sh 0 First vertebrates were likely mudsuckers ingested mud removed organic material 0 osmoregulatory abilities allowed shes to exploit estuaries osmoregulatory control oflevels of solutes inceJsin this case salts estuaries where salty ocean water and fresh water mix p41 Secondgroup th39 1 a p42 First group of modern shes lawless fishes cartilaginous s 39s ExampleS Eg hag sh and lampreys Lamprey mouth page 7 C more depen dent on water 43 Second group the cartilaginous shes p So named because skeleton made from cartilage First realjaws Most sh Amphibians the rst vertebrates on land need to repro in water C I Page 8C Third group of shes the ray nned p3944 or bony shes Cartilage replaced by bony skeleton p46 The ray nned shes evolved lunglike sacs for respiration became modi ed into W What are they used for maintaining buoyancy Why would this be useful control exactlywhere C they are in the water can duce p48 Amphibians the rst vertebrates on land 3 U But con ned to moist habitats 3m 1 Respire with lungs and across moist skin 2 Reproduce in the water have external fertilizationsperm must swim to egg 3 Eggs not waterproof generally have to be laid in water video segment showing an exception Reptiles better adapted to dry land 1 skin covered with scales p49 Reptiles better adapted to dry land 3 Egg with waterproof shell p51 p50 Reptiles better adapted to dry land 1 skin covered with scales alumnae E I don39t need water to fertilize inside the female they be C doing the W dirtydirty gtgt p52 The reptiles o o 9660 Lizards Turtles Snakes Crocodiles Birds WW birds are reptiles instead of scales What does that mean about berlSthey have feathels If reptiles are a monophyletic group 9 0 o Lizards 9 Turtles Snakes Crocodiles Birds are reptiles In birds the scales of other reptile groups have been modi ed into feathers p53 Birds Page 9 C REPTILES ON EXAM gtgt C 55 Reptilian intelligence Tool use in New Caledonian crows crows use cars in traffic to crack their nuts station next to pedestrian crossing p57 Mammalia ii Not many species 4500 compared to 875000 species of insects p59 Mammalia iv And our species has the greatest impact of any animal on life on this planet p56 Mammalia What unites us 1 Hair 2 Milk producing mammary glands 7 Wl a Mammalia iii But very diverse morphologically ecologically p60 Mammalia Three commonly distinguished groups of mammals 1 Monotremes egglaying mammals with reptilian like splayed legs Restricted to Australia and New Guinea Only 3 spp the Australian platypus and 2 spp of echidna Monotremes p61 p62 Mammalia Three commonly distinguished groups of mammals 2 Marsupials give birth to tiny young nursed in ventral pouch most of 240 00 in Australia Marsupials mammals with pouches p63 p64 Mammalia Three commonly distinguished groups of mammals 3 Eutherian mammals placental mammals by far the most diverse over 4000 spp Eutherian mammals the rest of us p65 p66 M a m m a ia a Mammals Q0 A 9 K 6 9 0 a V50 Eutherians Marsupials Monotremes 29 Are mammals a monophyletic group yes Key concepts 1 There are lots more species in Arthropoda than in any other animal phylum In fact most animal species are arthropods 2 Learn what distinguishes the four subphyla of arthropods Chelicerata eg scorpions spiders and mites etc first set of appendages modified into pincers or fangs mostly predatory but mites do almost everything herbivores predators parasites rustacea eg barnacles lobster crabs shrimp etc first appendages are antennae dominant marine arthropods terrestrial crustaceans land crabs roly poly s insects etc each segment of thorax and abdomen usu has appendage appendage may be branched yriapoda eg millipedes and centipedes etc lots of legs and many segments Hexapoda eg ants bees grasshoppers ies moths wasps etc 6 legs 3 body sections head thorax abdomen QM most species on Earth are Hexapoda 3 hy are there limits to arthropod size What are three reasons that insects ave been so evolutionarily successful ie have so many species Arthropods are tube like morphologically the structural strength of a tube increases as the tube diameter decreases as well as if body size increases then weight increases and too much weight would cause their exoskeleton to collapse 1 small size habitat becomes more complex the smaller you are and allows for more subdivision 2 ight more movement and rapid colonization 3 complete metamorphosis change in body plan during development U 4 What are the key morphological characters of the Echinodermata Chordata istinguish lineages of vertebrates Three lineages of fishes J awless shes eg Hagfish Lampreys etc Cartilaginous shes eg sharks rays etc skeleton made from cartilage Ray n shes most fish eg Clown fish Seahorse etc cartilage replaced by bony skeleton evolved lung like sacs modified into swim bladders maintain buoyancy in water ee lineages of terrestrial vertebrates Amphibians eg frogs toads salamanders the first vertebrates on land but confined to moist habitats respire with lungs and across moist skin reproduce in the water but external fertilization sperm must swim to egg eggs not waterproof have to be laid in water Reptiles including birds lt ltmonophyletic eg snakes lizards crocodiles turtles birds etc skin covered with scales internal fertilization don t need water to reproduce better adapted to dry land egg with waterproof shell Mammals eg whales seals bats mice humans etc united by the fact that all have hair and milk producing mammary glands not many species but very diverse morpho and ecologically 6 In what kind of habitat do you expect to find amphibians and why Land but con ned to moist habitats U 7 Distinguish the three groups of mammals Monotremes egg laying mammals with reptilian like splayed legs restricted to Australia and New Guinea eg Platypus Echidna etc Marsupials give birth to tiny young nursed in ventral pouch most in Australia eg Kangaroo Platypus Eutherian mammals placental mammals most diverse the rest of us eg bat Killer Whale Tiger Homo sapien etc 8 Define describe Pentaradial Symmetry rays or arms arranged in groups of 5 Osmoregulatory control of levels of solutes in cells Estuary where salty ocean water and fresh water mix Complete Metamorphosis change in body plan during development Notochord a exible rod in Chordata that supports the nerve cord for at least part of life unique to Chordata Swim Bladder modified lung like sacs for respiration in ray finned fishes Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord runs from the brain to the dorsal area of chordates unique to Chordata Outline 1 Arthropods A General morphology i jointed appendages ii segmented body iii external skeleton or exoskeleton iv passive respiratory system B Limits to size Chelicerata Scorpions Spiders Mites etc i First appendages modified into pincers or fangs ii Feeding niche iii Mites are everywhere eat everything Crustacea and Hexapoda first appendages are antennae E Crustacea are the dominant marine arthropods F Myriapoda millipedes and centipedes G Hexapoda i Three body sections head thorax abdomen ii Six legs walk from tripod to tripod iii Dominance of insects on the planet most of the animal species iv Why so dominant a small size b ight c complete metamorphosis II Echinodermata A Diversity B Morphology i Pentaradial symmetry ii Endoskeleton iii Water filled canal system C Feeding III Chordata A Morphological characters in common U i Chordates are vertebrates two small groups ii In vertebrates the notochord becomes replaced by vertebral column B The vertebrate body plan C The first vertebrates similar to modern jawless fishes D Cartilaginous fish i Developed jaws some JAWS fins E Ray fin or bony fish i lunglike sacks for respiration modified into swim bladders ii bony fish diverse F Amphibians the first experiment in living on land i respire by lungs and directly across skin ii reproduce in the water external fertilization iii eggs not waterproof lack waterproof membranes G Reptiles better adapted to dry land i Morphological features ii Reptile phylogeny iii Birds are dinosaurs with scales modified into feathers iv Reptilian intelligence H Mammalia i hair milk producing glands ii relative to other groups mammals are species poor but highly diverse morphologically ecologically U iii Monotremes iv Marsupials v Eutherian placental mammals


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