PHIL / RLST 110 Christianity Reformation Period
PHIL / RLST 110 Christianity Reformation Period 110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kevin Thayyil on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 110 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Jontathan Ebel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see World Religions in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Christianity Reformation Period (day4) Wednesday, April 13, 2016 11:12 AM Luthers Approach When Luther closed down purgatory TheologyProblem Caused a paradigm shift Two views: Thomas Aquinas Gratuitous infusion of Grace Moral co-operation --faith forwarded by acts of charity Salvation as condign merit William Ockham's View Morality as an acquired virtue There is the possibility of good works in a state of nature Free will and God's omnipotencewas combined (most successful factor) "God can choose to reward good people Draw near to God and he will draw near to you Luther's Position: 1. The scholastic teachings are heresy 2. Justification by faith (grace) alone 3. Righteousness of a human is external ("alien") or "forensic" He went completelyagainst Aristotelian ideas. He said the Church has become"Pelagian" and had drifted from St. Augustine's Teachings. Pelagius taught that humans are capable of good works. 5th CE. Considered Heretical. Lutheran Theology 1. Two theological principles Sola fide (salvationonly through faith) Sola scriptura (Scripture alone is responsible for Christian life and Christian authority) 2. Reform of the Sacraments Baptism Eucharist - Real presence of Christ through "consubstantiation" Rejects "transubstantiation" as explanation (ThomasAquinas explanation of how God is present in the sacrament;God is present in the substance of the bread and wine) These two are sacraments are efficacious; convey grace Lay and clergy receive both elements Lutheranism as a half way reformation 3. Reform of the Clergy Priesthoodof all believers Ministry as a vocation (but not everyonecan leave the service) Married clergy (clergy may marry)(humans cannot vow something against their nature) 4. Reform of the liturgy Vernacular Vernacular Congregational (mass is not a sacrifice, it is congregational or a gathering) Congregational singing (Luther was a great musician and made it important)(Whyshould the Devil have all the good tunes? - Luther) Eucharist and sermon (The Gospel has to be proclaimed, it is the real presence of God) Luther's Bible New Testament1522 CompleteBible 1534 Ca. 430 printings of Luther's Bible (partial or complete)by his death in 1546 Luther Bibles are designed as anti-Catholic manifestos(ex . He wanted the Bible to sound as if it was written yesterday. He was the first to translate the Bible to German from the original languages There couldn’t have been a protestant movementwithout the printing press The bibles were not Bibles alone. (You get a completetheological apparatus to read the Bible)(You are not free to read the way you want) Rejects the authority of the Vulgate • It’s the Latin translation by St. Jerome(380s-410s) • Vulgate includes apocryphal books • Luther embraces Bible based on Hebrew Masoretic Text and on Greek New Testament • Huge impact of Erasmus's publication • Ex. (Vulgate: do penance ; Greek: repent) Luther on the Canon of the Bible • Apocrypha excluded from canon • Luther innovativeprinciple of canonicity for New Testament • Luther's New Testamentof 1522 Only 23 books are certainly and entirely canonical Four books are listed as if in a different canon Catholic reactions to Luther Bible V. Calvinism - ReformedChurch 1. Sacraments - not necessary. Eucharist not the focus of Sabbath service (that is not god, focus on Gos) 2. Iconoclasm(the cleansing of the temple - fear of idolatry) (no images no idols) 3. Sermon and Bible readings (are the focus of the clergy) 4. Presbyterianpolity (not episcopal; churches are autonomous) 5. Discipline of members( you could be a excluded from service)
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