Sociology 101- Chapter 11 Notes
Sociology 101- Chapter 11 Notes SOC101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Friday February 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lesley Williams Reid in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/15
Rachel Counce February 16 2015 Sociology 101 Exam 2 Chapter 11 O Income earning from work or investments 0 US has never had a caste system or titled nobility however we are highly stratified 0 Rich receive the most school services highest incomes and benefit from the best health 0 During recent decades income inequality has increased Poorest 20 Fourth 20 Third 20 Second 20 Richest 20 percent of percent percent percent percent of families families 889 488 Share of Minimum Percentage of All US Percentage of All US Population Annual Income Income Wealth From Macionis Pearson textbookonline O Wealth the total value of money and other assets minus outstanding debts 0 Includes stocks bonds personal property insurance policies investments and real estate Does not include debt or home mortgage Distributed more unequally than income Income is a part of a person s wealth Wealth lessens vulnerability increases opportunities a creates a source of power 0000 Rachel Counce February 16 2015 O Occupational prestige refers to the fact that people give more respect to those who have an important job such as a physician or lawyer and less respect to those with modest jobs such as a waitress or janitor O Meritocracy social position re ects individual talent and effort 0 O O O 0 US contains some meritocracy and some caste elements class system Being born into a particular family can set one s poverty level Social ranking involves ethnicity and race whites being the most advantaged as compared to African Americans Hispanics and American Asians Every social class has men and women yet women earn less than men on average Families that have married parents earn more than single parents People of English ancestry have always had the most wealth and power in US society O Social Classes in the United States 0 O O 0 Some sociologists find 6 or 7 social classes Karl Marx had 2 social classes capitalists and proletarians Max Weber believed stratification doesn t have clearcut classes but a multidimensional status hierarchy Social position may change during a person s lifetime blurring class boundaries 1 Upper Class O O O O 5 of US population Earn at least 205000 or more Most are business owners executives in large corporations or senior government officials Historically upperclass was composed of AngloSaxon Protestants no longer accurate UpperUppers O O O O O 0 Include 1 of US population Almost always the result of being born into Primary inherited wealth in the form of stocks bonds real estate and investments Old moneyquot Children typically go to private schools and prestige colleges Women do volunteer work to broaden power and build networks LowerUpper O O O 0 Most upper class people fall under this category 34 Working richquot instead of inherited rich Not usually associated with old moneyquot families Made up of 4045 of US population Great in uence on our culture More diversity and ethnicity than the upper class Rachel Counce February 16 2015 UpperMiddles 0 Income of 116000 205000 0 2 3 graduate from college and postgraduate degrees are common 0 Play an important role in local Political affairs AverageMiddles 0 Close to the center of US class structure 0 Income between 48500 116000 0 Build up a small amount of wealth over the course of lives 0 Less than 5050 that they will complete a 4year college degree 3 Working Class 0 About 13 of the US population Income is between 27000 48500 Little or no wealth and are vulnerable to financial complications In Marxist terms forms the core of the industrial proletariat Iobs hold little personal satisfaction 0 Only 14 of children get a 4year college degree 4 Lower Class 0 20 of US population 0 75 complete high school but only 15 complete 4year college degrees 0 Struggle with unemployment or minimal income 0 O O 0 Average family income 0 Average family income in the United States grew rapidly between 1950 and 1970 In the decades since then however income increased at a lower and less even rate 0 After 2007 the economic recession pushed median income downward 0 Source US Census Bureau 2012 This decline has continued As 2013 the most recently available data family income has fallen to 58000 Median Annual Family Income 0 This decline has continued In 2013 family income has fallen to 58000 most recent available data Rachel Counce February 16 2015 O Four types of capital 1 2 3 4 Consumption capital demand is manipulated in the favor of the sellers marketing techniques Investment capital funds and assets invested into in order to further a business and or make a profit Skill capital what a person can contribute to the overall profit Social capital collective economic benefits from the cooperation between individuals and groups social networks Q How social standing affects 1 2 3 4 Health lowincome people are less likely to get the medical attention they need and on average the life expectancy for lowincome people is 5 years less than af uent people Values and attitudes higher class people experience more confidence and more tolerant of controversial behavior Politics more upper class people are more conservation on economic issues but more liberal on social issues lower class people tend to be the opposite Also higher class people are more likely to vote and join politics Family life lower income families typically have larger families and teach their children to respect authority higher income families are smaller and teach their children to use imagination O Social Mobility llllilqglglt ll lqalil llal social mobiliw a change in social position occurring during a person s lifetime liltl gllFatlllal social mobility upward or downward social mobility to children in relation to their parents El l 2 lllial social mobiliw changing jobs at the same class level 0 Five general conclusions about social mobility 1 2 3 4 5 Social mobility over the past century has been fairly high Within a single generation social mobility is generally small The longterm trend in social mobility has been upward Since the 1970 s social mobility has been uneven The shortterm trend in social mobility has been downward o Downward social mobility 1 2 3 4 For many workers earnings have stalled More jobs offer little income The recent recession brought economic decline Young people are remaining at home Rachel Counce February 16 2015 O Poverty Relative poverty the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more Absolute poverty a lack of resources that is life threatening o 46 million men woman and children have been classified as poor 15 of US population Feminizaiion of poven w the trend of women making up an increasing portion of the poor O Explaining poverty 1 Blame the poor the poor are mostly responsible for their own poverty gt Oscar Lewis states that many poor get trapped in a culture of poverty a subculture that destroys people s ambition to improve their lives gt Government welfare helps support the poor but may have time restraints 2 Blame Society society is mostly responsible for poverty gt Argued by Williams Iulius Wilson gt States there is not enough work Q Homelessness 0 An increasing national problem 0 Well below poverty level 0 Most do not work 0 13 are substance abusers o 1 4 are mentally ill
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