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Bio 124 Notes Week 1

by: Miles Grigorian

Bio 124 Notes Week 1 BY 124

Miles Grigorian
GPA 4.0

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Evolution Background
Dr. Raut
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miles Grigorian on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BY 124 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Raut in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see in Biology at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Date Created: 04/20/16
Chapter 22 – Evolution  Evolution is a Theory o Common thread that links all living things together o Change over time in the genetic composition of a population o The gradual appearance of all biological diversity o Charles Darwin  Coined evolution as “Descent with Modification”  Species have not always been as they are now, but evolved from ancestral species  The way this happened was through the process of natural selection o The differential reproduction in nature that leads to an increase in the frequency of some genes or gene combinations and a decrease in others o Organisms reproduce at different rates  Good genes stay and bad ones go away o History  Contradicted the Creation Story  Linnaeus  Established the Binomial System o 2 name taxonomic (genus and species) for each organism o Homo sapiens  Didn’t believe in evolution even though his work supported it  “God Creates, and Linnaeus Arranges” o He was full of himself  Cuvier  Father of paleontology  Believed in Catastrophism o Something happened that killed off the animals that are fossils, and the new animals came from different areas  Hutton  Believed in Gradualism o Thought that the fossils in different layers of stratus rock were due to environment factors  Lyell  Wrote The Principles of Geology  Took Hutton’s work and called it Uniformitarianism o Things we see in geology took longer than the widely accepted 6000 year Earth (according the bible)  Malthaus  Was an economist  Populations increased in size exponentially  Jean Baptiste de Lamarck  Felt that forces were controlled by an external force o If one of your parents was a biologist and the other was a mathematician, then you would be really good at bio and math o AKA Acquired Adaptations o Animals don’t have eyes in caves because the eyes are vulnerable, not because they can’t see  Problem with Lamarck’s work o He thought phenotype controlled genotype  Somatic mutations are not passed on  Descent with Modification by Natural Selection explains the Adaptations of Organisms and the Unity and Diversity of Life o Darwin’s Research  Was going to be a physician but then decided to go into theology  Was disgusted by surgery  Voyage of the Beagle  Embarked from England in December 1831 o Boat called the Beagle o Almost didn’t get to go because the captain of the ship believed in phrenology  Could lump a group of people together and determine their personalities  Captain and Darwin had completely different political views  Traveled to the Galapagos Islands o Off western coast of South America  Darwin’s Focus on Adaptation  There are some differences and similarities between the organisms on the islands  Adaptations o Inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments o A new species gradually arises from ancestors through gradual adaptations to different environments o Natural Selection explained why adaptations occur  Studies finches o Some had long beaks, and others had large beaks  Each lived on different islands  The more similar the characteristics of the finch, the closer the location of the organisms  Wallace  Went to the Indonesian archipelago and looked at animals too  Darwin waited 20 years to publish o Wallace came up with the same idea 20 years later o Pushed Darwin to publish o Published both works at the same time, and England published both side by side  Why didn’t Darwin publish 20 years earlier? o Darwin’s wife was very religious  Worried his wife would get a lot of criticism from the church o Others thought that Darwin new nothing of genetics and couldn’t have explained why natural selection occurred o The Origin of Species  Descent with Modification  Gradualism  4 Parts to Natural Selection o Variation  Not all organisms are alike in a species o There are competitions among individuals  Food, mates, etc  The more successful you are the better you are o You have to survive to reproduce to help the species o Each Species produces more individuals than can survive  Darwin never used the term “evolution”  Organisms share many characteristics, so supports the idea that organisms descended from a common ancestor  Darwin viewed the history of life as a tree with many branches and a common trunk  Evidence of Natural Selection o Fossils  Bones become rock  Some bones become impressions in the rock  Prokaryotic cells are the oldest and are found lower in the ground  Above them may be eukaryotes in the ground  Above the eukaryotes in the ground may be amphibians  And keep going up until you reach vertebrates and mammals o Organisms that all have phalanges all came from a common ancestor  Homologous organisms o Difference between bird wings and insect wings  Analogous organisms o Vestigial Structures  Underdeveloped and seemingly useless structures in some animals that are full developed and are well functioning in other closely related animals  Appendix in humans is useless, but a cow uses theirs  When you get cold, you get goosebumps, but when your dog gets cold it pushes its hair up to prevent airflow  Humans don’t have body hair but have the same muscles  Taxonomy o Domain, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species  Linnaeus came up with this taxonomic hierarchical system o “King Philip Came Over For Great Spaghetti” o Comparative Embryology  Embryos of animals are obviously similar to one another  Comes down to genetics o Biogeography  Distribution of plants and animals all over the world  Animals that live in similar environments look alike, but may not be closely related  AKA Convergent Evolution o The independent development of similarity between species as a result of them having similar ecological roles and selection pressure o Artificial Selection  Process where one species modifies the adaptations of other species by selecting and breeding individuals (Selective Breeding)  Humans raising pets or plants o Dogs came from wolves and some look like them, but others don’t o Chihuahuas may not live in the wilderness for long; easy dinner  Similar Process Occurs in Nature (2 Observations and 2 Inferences) o Observations  Members of a population often vary in inheritable traits  All species can produce more offspring than their environment can support o Inferences  Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing tend to leave more offspring than other individuals  This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations o NATURAL SLECTION DOES NOT CREATE, IT EDITS  Evolution does not work on an individual; it works on a population  Evolution is the changing genetic makeup of populations in successive generations


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