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Exss Week 15 Lecture Notes

by: Lynde Wangler

Exss Week 15 Lecture Notes EXSS 175

Lynde Wangler
GPA 3.836

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About this Document

The Reproductive System A/B
Dr. Johna Register-Mihalik
Class Notes
Human, anatomy
25 ?





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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 175 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Dr. Johna Register-Mihalik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY in Physical Education at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

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Date Created: 04/20/16
EXSS Reproductive System  Reproductive System o Gonads: produce gametes, secrete sex hormones o Ducts: store gametes, transport gametes o Accessory sex glands: protect gametes, facilitate gamete movement o Supporting Structures: assist delivery and joining of gametes, growth of fetus  Male: o Gonads – testes (sperm) o Duct – epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts, urethra o Accessory sex glands – seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands o Supporting structures – penis, scrotum  Female: o Gonads – ovaries (ova) o Ducts – uterine (fallopian) tubes o Accessory sex glands – mammary glands o Supporting structures – uterus, vagina, vulva  Scrotum: o Loose skin and superficial fascia; supports testes o Raphe – median ridge externally o Scrotal septum – internally divides scrotum o Cremaster muscle – “suspender;” continuation of internal oblique muscle; regulates temperature  Testes: o 2 inches long and thick; develop near kidneys; descend through inguinal canal  Cryptorchidism (do not descend fully to the scrotum; 3% in full- term babies and 30% in premature babies) o Tunica vaginalis – serous membrane o Tunica albuginea – dense irregular connective tissue; internal to tunica vaginalis; divides testes into lobules (200-300 lobules = 1-3 seminiferous tubules)  Seminiferous Tubules: o “seed” or “to carry” site of spermatogenesis o Leydig cells – between seminiferous tubules; secrete testosterone  Seminiferous tubules straight tubules rete testis coiled series of efferent ducts ductus epididymis  Epididymis: o Epi: above; Didymis: testis o Comma-shaped organ; 1.5 inches long; posterior border of each testis o Ductus epididymis: 20 ft. o Ductus (vas) deferens o Functions:  Site of sperm maturation (14 days); helps propel sperm; stores sperm (viable for several months, reabsorbed)  Ductus (Vas) Deferens: o 18 inches long; stores sperm; Vasectomy  vas deferens cut and removed; nearly 100% effective; 30-40% reversible  Ducts: o Ejaculatory Ducts – seminal vesicle and ampulla; superior to prostate; travels to urethra o Urethra – shared reproductive and urinary duct; prostatic urethra; membranous urethra; spongy urethra  Accessory Glands: o Secrete liquid portion of semen o Seminal vesicles – posterior to bladder; anterior to rectum; secrete alkaline, viscous fluid (60% of semen volume) o Prostate – golf ball size; inferior to bladder; milky, slightly acidic fluid o Bulbourethral Glands/ Cowper’s Gland – pea-sized; inferior to prostate; ducts to spongy urethra; alkaline fluid; mucus to lubricate penis  Spermatic Cord: o Supporting structure outside of scrotum; passes through inguinal canal o Consists of  vas deferens, testicular artery, veins, autonomic nerves, lymphatic vessels, cremaster muscle Reproductive System B  Female: o Gonads – ovaries o Ducts – uterine (fallopian) tubes o Accessory sex glands – mammary glands o Supporting structures – uterus, vagina, vulva  Ovaries: o Paired to glands; homologous to testis; produce oocytes; produce hormones o Germinal epithelium – simple epithelium o Tunica albuginea – capsule dense irregular tissue o Ovarian cortex – ovarian follicles o Ovarian medulla – blood vessels, lymph, and nerves  Support of Ovaries: o Broad ligament of uterus; ovarian ligament anchors ovaries to uterus; suspensory ligament anchors ovaries to pelvic wall  Ovarian Follicles: o Oocytes in various stages of development; mature follicle leads to ovulation; oogenesis begins before birth (200,000 to 2,000,000 oocytes per ovary at birth 40,000 present at puberty 400 mature and ovulate  Uterine Tubes: o Extend laterally from uterus; route for sperm o Infundibulum – funnel-shaped distal end o Ampulla – widest, longest portion o Isthmus – medial, short, narrow; joins uterus  Uterus: o Womb; pathway for sperm; site of implantation of fertilized ovum; development of fetus; source of menstrual flow; between bladder and rectum; inverted pear o Fundus – dome-shaped; superior to uterine tubes o Body – tapering central portion o Cervix – inferior narrow portion; opens to vagina o Broad ligament – attaches uterus to pelvic cavity o Uterosacral ligament – attaches uterus to sacrum o Perimetrium – outer layer; becomes broad ligament; covers bladder, rectum o Myometrium – cmooth muscle; contracts during labor due to oxytocin o Endometrium – inner; highly vascularized  Vagina: o 4 inch long fibromuscular canal; exterior to uterine cervix; passageway (menstrual flow, child birth, semen)  Accessory Structures/Glands: o Mons pubis – “mountain”:  Located anterior to vaginal and urethral openings; cushions pubic symphysis; elevation of adipose tissue covered by skin and pubic hair o Labia majora:  2 longitudinal skin folds; inferiorly and posteriorly from mons pubis; contain adipose tissue, sebaceous & sudoriferous glands; homologous to scrotum in males o Labia minora:  2 smaller folds of skin located medial to labia majora o Clitoris:  Small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue and nerves located at anterior junction of labia minora o Mammary glands:  Modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands that secrete milk; located just anterior to pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles; 15 to 20 lobes, which are separated by adipose tissue; each lobe consists of smaller compartments (lobules)


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