Lectures Notes 2/18-2/20
Lectures Notes 2/18-2/20 BIO102
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Kelly on Friday February 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO102 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Strofer in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Biology 102 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/15
Biology 102 Lectures 13 amp 14 Cells structure and function 0 Once HIV is in what does it do 0 Utilizes several cell organelles to complete its life cycles 0 Can use HIV life cycle to understand cell structure 0 One in the cell HIV proteins and RNA are released into cytoplasm o The cytoplasm is mostly water 0 Also contains proteins and other chemicals 0 Once in cytoplasm HIV uses enzymes reverse transcriptase to change from RNA to DNA 0 Animal cells controlled by DNA 0 HIV then moves to the nucleus 0 Control center of cell 0 Contains chromosomes Hereditary material 0 Surrounded by nuclear envelope 0 Has nuclear pores Allows communication with cell protein synthesis HIV get into nuclear pore don39t know exactly how 0 Once in nucleus HIV uses enzyme integrase to insert itself into cells DNA 0 Then starts making proteins to make copies of itself Proteins are made in ribosomes some ribosomes in cytoplasm others in rough endoplasmic reticulum o Endoplasmic reticulum ER Complex networks of tubes and sacs 2 types a quotSmoothquot Small percentage Lipids and carbohydrates made 0 quotRoughquot o Ribosomes make it bumpy 0 Site of protein synthesis So HIV makes necessary proteins eg RT enzymes in rough ER 0 Then has to transport these proteins into cytoplasm Proteins enter transport vesicles that quotbudquot from rough ER to Golgi apparatus 0 Components like lipids to assemble new virions made in smooth ER Golgi Apparatus o Directs proteins and lipids to nal destinations in cell 0 quotSorting and shipping stationquot 0 So HIV uses the Golgi apparatus to sort and ship proteins and lipids to from new virions 0 HIV virions assembles and parts leave cell by exocytosis Other important cell components Mitochondria the quotpower plantsquot of the cell Mitochondrial DNA Animal Versus plant cells 0 2 main differences 0 1 Plants have a cell wall in additions to plasma membrane 0 2 Plants have chloroplasts for making sugars or quotfoodquot for the plant Cellular communication Cells in muticeuar organisms are specialized Although they are specialized they do not operate in isolation Thus cells must communicate with one another 0 Brain feels quotpainquot you pull your hand away from heat 0 quotSignaling moleculesquot proteins and chemicals used for communication Lecture 14 February 20 2015 Cellular communication 0 Cells in muticeuar organisms are specialized Although specialized they do not operate in isolation Thus cells must communicate with one another 0 Brain feels quotpainquot pull hand away from hear 0 quotSignaling moleculesquot proteins and chemicals used for communication Sionalino molecules 0 Received by quottarget cellsquot 0 2 types of receptors 0 1 In membrane Hydrophilic molecules bind to receptors at cell surface 0 2 Inside ces TVpes of sionalino molecules Shortrange affect only cells around them 0 Have short life span 0 Eg nitric oxide expansion of blood vessel walls or vasodilation owers blood pressure Longrange can travel through blood 0 Longer life span o Eg hormones adrenaline testosterone estrogen etc LSee frightening stimulus snake LBrain sends signal to adrenal gland on kidney LProduce adrenaline LAdrenaline goes to liver LLiver breaks down glucose LAdrenaline goes to heart LBeats more increasing blood flow How can snake venom ki vou Cobra venom has neurotoxins that block signals among nerve cells 0 quotpostsynaptic blockquot 0 Results in muscle freezes diaphragm Why are bacteria such as anthrax toxic They interfere with intercellular communication Anthrax toxin blocks actions of kinase an enzyme that cuts up proteins 0 Once kinase is inactivated the cell cannot respond to external signals 0 Cell eventually dies Key points 0 The cell is the basic unit of life 0 Cellular structure in eukaryotes is complex 0 Each cells has an organized interworking group of parts to perform cell functions 0 Depending on the type of cell different proteins will be synthesized and cellular structure varies Cells are specialized and need to communicate 0 Short range or longrange signaling molecules
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