Modern Europe Notes 11
Modern Europe Notes 11 HIST 3480
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub Modern Europe Notes 11 “Appeasement Ethiopia, 1935 Germany Re-armed, 1935-36 Rhineland, 1936 Spanish Civil War, 1936-39 Elections, 1936 Popular Front National Front F. Franco (1892-1975) Mexico Soviet Union Hitler Mussolini International Brigades Guernica Austria, 1938 Czech Crisis, 1938 Sudetenland Munich N. Chamberlain Nazi-Soviet Pact, 1938 Stalin, D. 1953 Poland, 1939 Sept. 1, 1939 Sept. 3.”1 -papers are due on May 2 , exam questions will be here soon -shared factors WWII: Peace of Paris (TOV) is immensely flawed and provides unequal treatment to Germany 1. -> by the mid-nineteenth century, the rest of Europe feels that they treated Germany improperly -early German people started to riot, produce propaganda-filled campaigns of corruption and Nazism 2. -lack of a balance of power – League of Nations -fight between the Austrians and the Germans became increasingly divided -the League of Nations has a lack of enforcement -other German powers join later, 1926 -Germany, 1924 –Russia, U.S. never joins despite this being the product of Wilson’s idealism 3. 1 Please note: all quotations are taken from the board of Professor Smith. -the third cause is economic issues of Germany’s economy (19 billion dollars) -The Great Depression does not allow for the economy to fix itself in Germany (25% unemployment) -“national self-determination” that every ethnicity deserved a union of representation, however, in east-central Europe, the initiative is extinguished -unstable places, especially -Appeasement: exchange of peaceful tactics in order for us to get what we want or to be left alone -the corruption of fascist Italy, Germany, and France, Britain, U.S. -“statesmen” in the West view WWI would have done most anything to avoid every having experience that unprecedented goriness again -when Germany seems to be rising up prior to WWII, the world appears to see Germany through a lens of understandable building-up or reclamation in a power-move of the aftermath of loss -in Britain, the Tories seemed to like Germany’s reestablishment -in the West, Communism took the stage for the concern of a threat to order, Marx’s ideas were believed to possibly foundationally be another mobilization to a large scale -there seemed to be this belief that the Soviet Union might be created anew (Japan and other parts of Europe were seen as confining this growing threat) -hopeful that Stalin and Hitler would prevent each other from actually spreading their corrupt views, and that eventually the Western world would come to the rescue (theoretical) -Hitler and Mussolini were keeping a watchful eye over the alliances of the Soviet Union and U.S. -Italy attacks Ethiopia in 1935 (1898 failed attempt) (already have a small colony in Somalia) -French and British see this as a debatable context, and eventually Ethiopia becomes an east African Italian conquested mercantile state -Germany Re-Armed, 1935-36 – Germany begins to build-up, to the point where at the end of 1936, Britain and France cannot fight this undeniable mobilization and thus Britain finally has to begin to re-up their military as well -military economic side-effects, more jobs, lines go down, by the mid-30’s the economic projections are on a rise -in 1936, Germany re-occupies with military force, the Rhineland -military historians argue that the start of WWII should have been initiated by France and Britain right then, however, the threat of death was enough to appease -the threat also scares the weakened French to a stillstand -Spanish Civil War – 1936-39 -back in 1931, the last Spanish attempt at revolution was relatively ineffective and quiet) -there are many different political groups that weaken the overall power of Spanish’s government -the 1936 election, between the Popular Front and the National Front, but the National Front -Popular Front is the result of communism, workers, low class, even some radicalism (anarchism), nationalism -National Front has fascists, big business (German, minerals), Catholics, overly-modest)-left -they never truly refigure their government or write much when they are elected, and thus their Civil War is initiated -the revolution of Franz Franco (1892-1975) – the British and the French declare neutrality at the end of this result, Madrid -the Tories in the House of Parliament were somewhat sympathetic, the U.S. actually supports fascist dictator Franco (Texico oil company sent to him, American-made company trucks…) -Hitler forwards tanks and airplanes, Mussolini sends 10,000+ troops -the majority of the aid has the result of coming from Mexico -the Soviet Union sends aid to the left, they admire them, but they also are lacking their military strength and strength in numbers, so they are primarily left out -volunteers, civilian volunteers… the “International Brigades” (George Orwell, Hemingway, Delmer Berg…) -Daylight bombing of Madrid, German planes Picasso painting -about 500,000 are dead at this point -after the Civil War, Franco comes to power in 1939 -Franco and fascist supports take 20,000 or some leftist competition, put them in prison, death, or worse -the Americans even acknowledge Franco the fascist as the ruler until 1975 -what Hitler learns is that the Western world are so against the Soviet Union that they will stop them at any time -so, Hitler annexed Austria, March – announced that Austria is into joining Germany’s patriarchal territory -some people feel him on this, but the leftists in Vienna, and such do not support this move -Britain and Europe upset -“Sound of Music” -the contrast of the French and British lead them again to not do anything -Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland (mountainous region) had about 3 million Germans, yet was organized in the Czech area -immediately after the move on Austria, he tells every German in the area about the oppression of the Sudetenland, and he wants to reclaim that for Germany too -classical appeasement at the September meeting of (Hitler, Mussolini, Nevile Chamberlain, Delider) at the Munich Conference -appeasement of giving the Sudetenland over and he goes home to Britain to tell the peace that he has solved the problem -U.S. is there in secret, without official representation, and the Soviet Union is not at all a part of this deal -Stalin believes that Hitler is going to go east to attack Soviet Union -the Soviets want to stop this nonsense in its tracks, but since the great purges of military elite (Soviet Union also just defeated Japan slightly, Manchuria), and so the rest of the world could not agree with such a politicized dictator -thus, the rest of the world feels that they will have to agree with Hitler -the rest of Czechoslovakia is annexed, Stalin, who read Mein Kamf, he decides to create this Nazi-Soviet Pact, August, 1939 -the agreement of the Soviets is that at a convenient time in the future, the Russians will split up back to 1919 original boundaries, which means a loss of power, and lets Hitler think this is more of a peaceful surrender for him to build his empire -Stalin decides he will attack in the future, Hitler might, but Stalin thinks he will have about 4-5 years (Industrialization plans, 5 Year Plans, make sense in his mind to currently avoid any entangling of alliances for the sake of the Soviet Union) -he has two years, as we will see later -this allows for Hitler to be reckless, and now Poland is in the play -Poland is again a state at Versailles, but this separates East Prussia from Germany -Hitler announces to Europe/Western World, that is the locational separation is not altered to rejoin Germany, there will be repercussions -Hitler lies to the German people and says that Poland is a huge threat, when it is barely a country -the French and the British are with Poland, so these treaties stick to the consciousness of the Polish nation -September 1, 1939, Germany enters the now contested area with tanks, heavy armies, but he also thinks less about when on Semtember 3, 1939 the French and British are the first to initiate a declaration of war on Germany -Hitler does not envision the British walking up to and initiating another war, the French are hoped by him to be allies -Nazi-Soviet Pact also gave Germany access to mineral rights, advanced technology -Germany does not have enough in sheer numbers -Hitler was predicting that America could be delayed from joining the war and be less of a power -Poland only lasts 3 weeks - less in terms of military technology