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Week 6 Class Notes

by: Maggie MacDonald

Week 6 Class Notes COMM 370

Maggie MacDonald
Penn State
GPA 3.15
Introduction to Public Relations
Dr. Steve Manuel

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About this Document

Notes on three lectures: Communication, Privacy and PR Laws.
Introduction to Public Relations
Dr. Steve Manuel
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie MacDonald on Friday February 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 370 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Steve Manuel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Relations in Communication at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 02/20/15
Communication Lecture 02112015 COMMUNICATION 21115 Goals of Communication Step 0 Inform Persuade o Motivate Achieve mutual understanding Variables to Consider Is the message appropriate Appropriate to the publics you are trying to reach Meaningful Does it stick to the subject 0 Memorable Audiovisual Understandable Are there any possible negative connotations to your message Believable Does that audience trust the spokesperson What is the Objective 0 Message exposure lAudiences exposed to message in many forms Accurate Dissemination of Message lBasic info remains intact even though ltered lNever go off the record 0 Acceptance of Message lAcceptance based on reality doesn t mean retention 0 Main objective change in overt behavior News item of the day years of government warning against cholesterol is undone Receving the Message gt4 basic elements Sendersource Message Channel Receiver decoder Feedback Harold Lasswell 1940 s sociologist Basically the act of communications says if you don t get the audiences attention you fail quotWho says what in which channel to whom with what effectquot Why Do We Pay Attention To Messages 0 Survey environmentwhat s happening around us 0 Entertainment Reinforce predispositions Purchasing products Walt Seifert quotDissemination does not equal publication and publication does not equal absorption and action All who receive it won t publish it and all who read or hear won t understand or act upon itquot o If you put your press release in the NY times ne but did they understand it If they did did they act on it 0 Just because you disseminated it doesn t mean you published in OneonOne Communication ie Tonya Reiman analyzes Bush body language 0 Most effective form of communication out there Small Group Communication 0 An effective form of communication because you can watch everyone s body language The Active Audience vs The Passive Audience 0 Passive pays attention to the message because it s interesting 0 Active audience just needs the information because they are already interested 0 Le someone who has decided to adopt just needs information because they ve already decided they were interested Attention Getting Methods lperception is reality Sight 83 of learning Hearing 11 of leaning Seeing amp Hearing 50 of what we retain Example quotHigh Price of Oilquot magazine cover of Bush amp Muslim man talking Understanding Communication SenderReceiver have common understanding of symbols used Uses of Symbols Acronyms Slogans quotPromoting freedom in Chinaquotpic of George Bush and Chinese man 0 shadow on Bush s face might symbolize the shadow of the US under China they are trying to own us 0 Avoid jargon semantic noise o ABM Anti bullshit movement 0 Avoid clich s 11 most overusedineffective words for a press release 0 leading enhanced unique signi cant solution integrate powerful innovative advanced high performance and sophisticated 0 quotgoing forwardquot 0 Avoid euphemisms 0 quotAn offensive word or phrase that is less direct and less distasteful than the one that represents realityquot 0 Avoid discriminatory language ie can t say midget anymore Remembering the Message 0 Why do you remember these organizations 0 Don t leave home without it Be all you can be Just Do It Ultimate Driving Machine BMW Priceless We re Looking For A Few Good Men Marines You remember the message because of repetition FiveStage Adoption Process 0 Awareness 0 Interest 0 Evaluation OOOOO war 0 Trial 0 Something O PERSUASION 2162015 Example tried to change public opinion through media during the Iraq What is Public Opinion Charotte Beers undersecretary of State for Public Diplomacy Female advertising guru of the world 0 Primary job was to create TVprint etc messages to present the US to middle eastern countries to change their view of the US Karen Hughes brought in by Bush when Beers failed Richard Stengel current undersecretary of State for Public Diplomacy 0 Still not working to well A Passive Public Not many events effect us too seriously Few galvanizing events pearl harbor 911 Operation Restore Hope Mogadishu Somalia Struck a nerve with the US bc of imagery Humanitarian Mission ran by US in conjunction with the UN Blackhawk Down Picrtures shocked public De nition of Public Opinion quotPublic opinion is a collection of views held by persons interestedin the subject De nition quotPeople who are interested or who have a vested or selfinterest in an issue or who can be affected by the outcome of he issue form public opinion on the issue Events Trigger Public Opinion People must be aware of an issue Awareness discussion lead to forming opinions and consensus among the public Opinion leaders are the catalysts for public opinion 0 Discussion is King Types of Opinion Leaders Forma Opinion Leader Presidents of companies Elected of cials Heads of membership groups lnformal Opinion Leader 0 Special clout Role models 0 Can exert pressure on others to go along Opinion Leader Traits Active in community Make up 1012 of our population Have college degrees High incomes Read newspapers regularly Life Cycle of Public Opinion De ne the issues lnvolve opinion leaders Public awareness Government involvement Resolution How PR Practitioners Inform Use the mass media Persuasion Not coercion because it is done with words Persuasive effectiveness depends on credibility of threats and promises proffered by the communicator Aristotle Ethos source credibility Logos logical argument Pathos emotional appeal Uses of Persuasion 1 Changeneutralize hostile opinions Most difficult to accomplish LJ39gtLJLJII I 0 Social reality perceptions 2 Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes 3 Conserve favorable opinions o Easiest form of persuasion Factors Audience analysis Source credibility Aristotle s ethos 0 Based on expertise sincerity charisma Using celebrities 0 Purpose call attention to productissue 0 Problems too many endorsements o Expertise not as important CLICKER QUESTION 0 TF Public opinion triggers events A False events trigger public opinion Persuasion Concepts Positive appeals more effective than negative appeals Negative appeals generally fail Radio and TV messages are more persuasive than print unless the message is complex 0 Listen to wars of worlds High fear appeals work if there is an immediate action to eliminate the threat Appealing to logic using facts amp gures work better on smarter people Sefinterest is a strong motivator ie power respect wellbeing affection etc PR LAW 2182015 CNN Breaking News ISIS Fighters Launching major new assault in Iraq Talks about the social media messages sent from ISIS SS puts out 90000 social media messages a day US is trying to quotstep upquot against the ISIS propaganda quotLet the wiener wars beginquot Legal Problems Examples Princeton Dental Resource Center Claimed that eating chocolate would prevent tooth decay American Family Publishers 98 0 Sent out huge advertisement with quotYOU VE ONE XX NUMBER OF DOLLARSquot in huge font and then in little font it said quotif you have the winning ticketquot Merrill Lynch Photo Advertisement 0 Took a staff picture in front of Merill Lynch sign intended for advertising purposes but didn t get the signatures for photo release Papa John s Pizza Addresses social media in the book lNot all lawsuits result in convictions but could result in adverse publicity and defense costs Conspiracy Bribing government officials coverups Provides counsel for an illegal action Takes major personal part in illegal action Helps establish a quotfront groupquot and not tell the public that your PR rm was involved Cooperates in any way to further an illegal action First Amendment is not absolute Libel Slander and Defamation Libel a printed falsehood Slander a vocal falsehood Defamation what most courts use today a collective term for both libel and gander Defamation Statement lowers the person in the eyes of others Very difficult to prove in court because you must have proof of intent ie it can be proven defamation if action prevents person s chance of getting a job in the future Definition any false statement about a person or organization that creates public hatred contempt ridicule or in icts injury on reputation Example Dr Manuel goes to join bowling team and the only open team was the special Olympian team was then shunned for the entire season Don Imus amp Rutgers CNN Awaiting News Conference from Rutgers Players Alfred Edmond Jr 0 Analyzes sport radio host in which the host Don Amos calls Rutgers female basketball players as quotnappyheadedhoesquot and the Tennessee females quotcutequot lExample of defamation of the Rutgers players Defamation Must prove Statement was communicated to others through print broadcast or electronic means 0 The person was identi ed or is identi able Actual injury in form of monetary losses loss of reputation or mental suffering Malicious or negligent intent Avoiding Libel Suits Ensure press releases contain accurate veri able information Avoid libelous statement during media interviews choose your words carefully Be careful how you refer to a competitor s product ie if you want to talk bad about their product make sure you have scienti c evidence Katie Holmes sues Star Magazine over a cover that insinuated she was a drug addict and won Fair Comment Defense Must prove actual malice quotThe Dirty Dozen Pollutersquot TheaterMusic use fair comment defense for their reviews Justi ed because when company puts a product into the public they have to expect criticism Who Can Sue lEveryone but the governments Expires upon death because you cannot sue a person s estate for Defense to Libel Suits Statute of limitations 0 libel actions must be brought within one to two years from the date of publication regardless of whether the plaintiff was aware or not Truth is the best defense to ibe First Amendment opinion defenseljplaintiff must be able to prove falsity of statement Employee Newsletters Do not enjoy same protections of 1st Amendment Keep employee stories organizationoriented Do not put personal columns in the company newsletter Avoid anything that might embarrass or subject employee to ridicule Invasion of Privacy Don t have to but recommend getting consent for photos and comments in employee newsletters Good Philosophy quotIfl used dmy mo CLICKER QUESTION QTF A signed photo release is not required for internal newsletters ATrue Late Night with John Oliver RadioShack les for bankruptcy t s demise has been discussed in a joking way Many ads teing RadioShack to quotgo to hell ya lthy animalsquot lCan he be sued for defamation or something of the sort No Invasion of Privacy Media inquiries about employees 0 Can con rm heshe is an employee 0 Can con rm person s title and job description 0 Can give date of beginning employment or termination ie Dr Manuel can t tell the media how a student is doing in his class but can disclose the above bullets of information Copyright Law De nition protection of a creative work from unauthorized us Does not protect ideas only the ways in which they are expressed ie If a student tells Dr Manuel an idea he can steal it Raw facts may be copied at will Authorship Literary works Musical works Dramatic works Pantomimes and Choreographic works Pictorial graphic or sculptural works ie students take pictures for class and university demands to use them for brochureillegal unless the university had paid them to take them Motion pictures Sound recordings Body art Who owns the tattoo after it is created lsome say the artist some say the buyer What about when it appears in sports video games lTattoo artists Chris Escobedo sued video game company when a tattoo he created appeared visible on a player in a video game Question of who owns the copyright of a tattoo has never been settled Music amp Commercials Pepsi Example quotNorman Pheeman Pepsi drinker for lifequot Why Copyright To prevent competitors from making money from another company s creative work 0 Use the letter C in a circle followed by the world copyright 0 Register officially with the Copyright office but it s not necessary to do Duration of Copyright Current worksife of author plus 70 years Corporation 95 years from day of publication ie Disney recently expired in 2003 and was renewed Federal Government cannot copyright their work Fair Use vs Infringement Fair use part of a copyrighted article may be quoted directly but quoted material must be brief and contain complete attribution Permission required if any of copyrighted material is used in advertisements or promotional brochures Can video tape TV shows for purposes of personal viewing Licensing Fees The Collegiate Licensing Company run out of Atlanta Georgia deals with a lot of Penn State licensing of pictures etc lTake 10 off the top Copyright on the Internet Two issues 1 Downloading copyrighted material 2 Unauthorized uploading of copyright material ie Youtube is required by law to take down videotape of 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act lYoutube is not responsible for what their users upload Trademark Law Can t use wordssloganstrademarks that are easily recognized Watch what you say Trademarks are capitalized proper adjectives not verbs Trademark Infringement Can t take a recognized logo and change it a little to use ie Apple Obama campaign basically copied Pepsi logo illegal Federal Trade Commission Deceptivemisleading advertising Product News Releases Product videos brochures Vehicles of commercial trade 0 PR practitioners are liable False Advertising Suit CocaCola Pomegranateblueberry juice sans pomegranate ie Rival Pom Wonderful sued for false advertising FTC Example ie Rapid Shave ad claimed it could be used to shave sandpaper lNo scienti c evidence to back it up FCC Licenses radiotelevision stations VNR discussion FDA Get excited of advertising and PR over prescription drugs overthe counter medicines and cosmetics Press releases must 0 Tell bene ts but also the risks Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC nterested in discrimination of any type ie religious ethnic gender etc Privacy De nition quotinstantaneous photographs and newspaper enterprise have invaded the sacred precincts of private and domestic life and numerous Expectation of Privacy If you are naked in your apartment with your blinds open and someone shoots a picture you cannot sue If they are on your property you can sue for trespassing Appropriation Oldest of the four privacy torts Definition taking a person s name picture photograph or likeness and using it for commercial purposes without permission Soundalikes Bette Midler sues For Motor Company for using a soundalike performer that worked as a backup for her after she denied being a part of it lsued and won Consent Written consent not always a defense Consent may not be valid after 10 years 0 Person giving consent must be of legal age Right to privacy ends upon death of a person Intrusion Definition illegal collection of data about an individual Reasonable expectation of privacy determines if an intrusion has occurred ie lf information is incurred through a secret camera or something of the sort that s intrusion False Light The law states that people have the right of privacy not to be placed in a quotfalse lightquot CLICKER QUESTION QAll of the following info is permitted to be released to a reporter on an employee except ASalary


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