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Date Created: 04/14/14
NR EAST M20 Writing Systems 14414 1549 Defining Writing How do we define writing 0 Textbooks a system of human intercommunications by means of conventional visible marks Writing may be characterized as a medium of communication which people use in order to bridge spatial and temporal distance by means of readily understandable or agreed upon sign 0 We can identify writing even though we don39t now what it means 0 Diverse oneness of writing 0 writing vs art line between art and writing is a little bit more blurred than we imagined before Assumptions that the rise of writing occurs in close connection to the rise of civilizations writing pertains to urbanism highly stratified social system 0 can distinguish writing vs art when we associate it with a highly civilized nation 0 writing goes hand in hand with civilization not sure that it will hold up as quarter progresses problem of art vs writing forces us to refine our definitions of writing 0 The Phonetic Principle writing is different than art because we can match the sign or symbol to an element of speech or something in spokenlanguage the development of writing 0 question about the definition of writing are inextricably linked to questions about the development of writing pictograms gt ideograms gt rebus principle gt syllabic writing gt alphabetic writing language evolves from a pictographic representation to an alphabet has to evolve in that manner because cultures evolve to more advanced ways pictograms try to identify them there are problems with them drawing running belief honesty I ran he was honest so they led to ideograms more abstract relationship between a sign and meaning sign does not represent something concrete more ambiguity requiring additional signs to clarify meaning becomes difficult when trying to convey more meaning so led to rebus principle representations of a word or syllable by the picture of an object the name of which resembles in sound the represented word or syllable have the ability to do a lot graphically in order to represent the spokenlanguage developed early by several civilization when a fish and a chisel are not a fish and a chisel 0 using them to indicate a phonetic value syllabic writing sign represents a syllable a combination of consonants and vowels key difference between ideographs and syllabic writing is that syllabic writing represents sounds and not entire words alphabetic writing sign represents a single phoneme further reduction of the number of signs needed to use writing systems we use a combinations of all of these things even tough we want to construct and evolutionary growth of writing Quizzes 10 quizzes over the quarter first one is a pre test 0 week 2 quiz is online 0 must log in to my ucla and click on the course website where itislocated 0 three attempts to take the quiz 0 Monday at 1pm quiz shut down Cuneiform Deesha Tripathy Deciphering Cuneiform 7414 Major Assignment for the Class Writing Assignment Part 1 collect a minimum of 12 written sources books articles encyclopedia entries provide an annotated bibliography that explains why the written sources would be useful for instruction in a class such as ours really good example on the syllabus to copy formatting and the way it was annotated Part 2 scholarly online sources museum websites university websites that could be used in our class to illustrate some of the artifacts that reflect the writing system Show me where I could go online to find artifacts that relate to that writing system Choose two artifacts that you find how two specific artifacts are really great examples of the features of the writing system Part 3 provide an explanation of how the writing system contributed to the development of culture within the society in which it functioned How was it used major literary works significance in that society and what do they tell us about that society Cuneiform wedge shaped writing Distancing function of writing writing separates the speaker from his or her audience to speak to a audience over vast horizons of time Assume that that which is written is written for us trying to understand that which is written cuneiform coined about 1700 of the common area the most widely used writing system used across ancient Mesopotamia Iran was a writing system used in many different regions in the ancient near east Persia Iran Iraq Syria modern countries of the middle east writing system used to convey several different languages it was not a language just a writing system old Persian empire was used elamite and a cast majority of our sources was in between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Sumerians Babylonians Syrian Hittite eastern turkey doesn39t refer to one language or region used by many different cultures in Babylon stretches over 3 millennium wrote letters for diplomatic purposes code of Hammurabi most famous Babylonian king earliest codes of law in cuneiform many examples are found on monuments temples and palaces king reliefs Cuneifrom Literature epic of Gilgamesh first cuneiform writing story tablet 7000BCE Decihperment Step 1 Persepolis inscriptions Persepolis modern day Iran 0 built 500 BCE capital of Persian empire between 500 BCE 330 BCE 0 have cuneiform inscriptions that resemble old Persian form used by the people who built Persepolis o 1700 some of the explorers began making copies of the inscriptions people began to decipher the language and began trying to decode 0 first discoveries wedge is a word divider Carsten Niebhur and George Grotefend gets the credit of deciphering cuneiform 0 this writing system was alphabetic both kind of came up with it o began to identify first the names of important kings and cities we had this because it was preserved in Greek and Latin literature so they were able to find the name 0 laid the foundation of the decipherment of old perisan an alphabetic system 0 all inscriptions would began with Darius the king of the Persians son of correctly deciphered son and king Decipherment Step 2 Behistun Inscriptions located in the mountain pass between Iran and Iraq these were commissioned by Darius to climb 300 feet and write his military history in three different languages inscription is trilingual the Rosetta stone of the near east all in cuneiform 0 top left is Babylonian 0 top right is elamite 0 bottom center and right is Persian importance it what they led to use old Persian and use it to decipher the bisthun Persian and then decipher the Babylonian text which was the exact same context old Persian text had word dividers once this was deciphered then the Babylonian text was deciphered it led to the decipherment to cuneiform in Mesopotamia Sir Henry Rawlinson part of the British Army stationed in Iran he began climbing the face and began making copies of the inscription o became the foundation of what European universities started working on their copy 0 worked at 18351857 o mail it back to Europe to two main scholars Edwin Hincks and Julius Oppert ultimately cracked the code in the 1850s 1857 many people had a skeptical view Royal Asiatic Society Test 1857 o mailed them a new cuneiform inscription and they all pretty much came up with the same decipherment they argued that the Babylonian text was not like the old Persian cuneiform o argued that the Babylonian was written in a syllabic writing system 0 one individual cuneiform sign was a syllable 0 most important discovery that was made 0 able to connect the Babylonian to current sematic languages in their time o Babylonian cuneiform was the predecessor to Arabic Hebrew Decipherment Step 3 Nineveh and the Babylonian Flood Story British expedition to the north Ira where Assyrian kings lived began in 1850 and 1860 Austin Henry Layard began excavating enormous palaces and many tablets with inscriptions 0 1860s one of the most famous libraries of antiquity Assyrian King Asshur anupal o Babylonian Flood Tablet fundamentally different because it was a literally work 0 George Smith began to decipher and translates the flood story or what was part of the Epic of Gilgamesh the earliest known work of literature in history Didn39t know that it was a portion of the Epic of Gilgamesh 9414 Cuneiform The First Writing System There will be a few questions posted on the course website covering the weeks lecture and seeing if you have learned these things Guest Lecture Jared Wolfe specialist in Cuneiform What we think that led up to the need of creating writing Motivating factor of tokens and leading up to writing Lot of theories come form this A little over 3000 years for cuneiform use Writing is an agreed upon system of graphic symbols used to represent utterance Characteristics from Coulmas Book 0 Artificial graphical marks on durable surface 0 Communicative purpose 0 The marks corresponds in a conventional manner to language Primarily looking at Sumerian and Akkdian which used the cuneiform script Pristine Languages developed inside not spread Cuneiform 3500 BC Hieroglyphics 3300 BC under review 0 Harappan 2200 BC Chinese 1500BC Mayan 300 BC Mesopotamia Earliest settlements of Babylonia 0 Writing emerged mainly in Uruk Population gathered here for the first time and needed to start keeping track of itself Plain tokens first part of account record keeping Writing systems are based on efficiency constantly refining itself to be convenient Tokens Why did these stand out to Schmandt Bessart 0 They were fired to harden them to last forever 0 Clued here to be a commodity in order to represent something 0 Starts collecting them all but since many people thought these were trash they were usually discarded and not recorded 0 Small tokens turn into complex tokens hatches and little designs and these become our first cuneiform signs Thought it was all linear so many people attacked her 0 After complex token bullae come into existence is a way to verify transaction allow for guarantee for sale Bullae only contained simple tokens not complex tokens Increasing Complexity 0 Simple tokens Specify a number 0 Complex Tokens Specify commodity o Bulla Further guarantee sale transactions Cylindrical seal that allows you to imprint the bullae with a pattern to mark the office or the person to the sale No longer have the tokens take those little tokens and push them into the outside impression of tokens allows ease permanence of record Idea of abstraction individual token is starting to lose meaning but their picture is starting to mean something 0 Tablet to impress things on Starting to put more information on a single piece Specify number commodity office people Impressions and drawings eliminate need for tokens 2 Simplification Clay is guarantee easy storage Don39t know what language these signs represent or are they ideograms o Punctuated equilibrium 0 Idea of writing is starting to shoot out Development of Writing in Mesopotamia 85003500 BC 0 1020 signs 0 numerography tokens bullae numerical tablets 35003400 BC 0 30 signs 0 numerologographic tablets 34002800 BC 0 1200 signs 0 protocuneiform lexical lists copied by Akkadian and Sumerians directly inherited and maintained them How do we identify the language of early texts Phonetic use of signs rebus principle Example 1 see slide on course website Writing Systems require A set of defined symbols A set of rules and conventions understood and shard by a community which assigns meaning and spatial ordering to the symbols and their relations to one Cuneiform What do we expect 0 Decreasing in complexity 0 Increasing representation of sounds o Fixed order and script What does this look like in terms of writing o move from Iogograms to phonograms o standardization and economization of phonograms o conventionalization of ogo phonetic systems 2600 2000 BC 0 800 signs 0 syllabo Iogographic 20001600 BC 0 100 signs used regularly used in between different people and cities across the languages 0 sign reduction sounds go up 1600 BC 200 AD 0 600 signs Pictographic Script From pictogram to script sign Curvilinear signs drawn into clay Cuneiform signs nai shaped incised into clay The Rebus Principle From Meaning to Sound The rebus principle uses a words sound but not its meaning This occurs in nearly all complex writing systems as they move form Iogographic to syllabic writing Sumerian Rebuses The sounds gi in Sumerian o Gi reed o Gi to return 0 Gi night dark The Akkadian Shift Sumerian is a language isolate no relations Get rest from website Discussion Sources Next Wednesday come in with 6 written courses 0 Published in a physical format at least at some point Ucawordcatorg 0 Advanced search 0 Date limit last fifty years 1960 and beyond Right not just finding them Development how it works and if it is still used in modern times 0 Socialology of the language Articles jstor 0 Much shorter but tend to be on a much more specific object Egyptian Hieroglyphs 14414 1549 LACMA Visit Week 5 no lecture on Monday Visit to LACMA in place of lecture Download the assignment instructions from the course website submit it by turnitincom by Friday May 2quotd Mayan and cuneiform reliefs Weekly Summaries Short list of questions about the assigned reading to help you focus the reading Posted under a fiver week of the course Emphasis upon the Coulmas reading Do this Deciphering Egyptian Hieroglyphs 14414 Ancient Egypt 0 Gift of the nile Very often thought of as two lands upper and lower Egypt 0 Upper Egypt is Memphis to the City of Thebes o Lowe Egypt the delta region north of Memphis to the Mediterranean sea Allows us to get into the idea of Egyptian history 0 Ruled as one country of two countries 0 Everything from the pre dynastic era ti the greek and roman penods And era is a kingdom just refers to a period of where one king ruled over both lands of the country More than one ruler is an intermediate period decentralized period 332 BC Alexander the great took it over becomes greek then roman 300 BC Christianity takes over 614 AE becomes Muslim the Coptic Christian elements become heavily persecuted and Coptic becomes eclipsed by arabis as the laungaugae of Egpyt Four different writing systems Hieroglyphs 3000 300 BCE 0 Sacred carvings o Mainly found on temple walls and other types if monumental architecture Hieratic 3000300 BCE cursive equivalent of hieroglyphs o Priestly writing 0 Mainly found on papyrus scrolls texts Demotic 700 500 BCE 0 Later development of hieratic 0 Popular writing Coptic 300 1800 CE 0 Egyptian word derives from the name of the Egyptian god Ptah 0 Language of the Egyptian orthodox Christian church replaced by Arabic in the 8 10 centuries CE 0 Least known in the world today played an extremely important role in the understanding of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics Hieroglyphs No particular order for how one wrote hieroglyphics Way to describe all of the pharaohs military accomplishments Difficult to differentiate between art and a writing system Function of Writing in Ancient Egypt Writing in ancient Egypt some vary noticeable differences Lists of gifts and offering brought to temples Overlapping function with ritual cultic and religious functions We don39t have the same nature of evidence for accountancy se we have in Mesopotamia perhaps due to the differences in media Earliest texts seem to have developed as a necessity of royalty so they can brag about what they want Invented to write the regin of kings o earliest writing is for royals economic function execration texts 0 use writings for spells and curses o smashed against walls or the ground to bring about an effect upon ones enemies o harmful magic ancient Egyptians thought writing had to have divine origins since it was so powerful 0 had religious scared power 0 amuets write name and spells around your neck and encircle them with some kind of border so nothing can affect you 0 writing and priesthood pyramid texts 0 date to the old kingdom period 0 written on the walls and sarcophagi of kings o spells with descriptions for the afterlife and spells for protections of the remains of kinds 0 part of the way of affecting the afterlife of the person The Book of the Dead 0 spells for traveling in the afterlife 0 writing was luminous Decipherment Step 1 Egyptian Cartouches 0 people thought that hieroglyphics were not in fact a writing system but just decoration on monuments and temples 0 did not go through the whole business of letters words and sentences They did not employ devices to copy the sounds of a propositions of how I is pronounced thought they were picture not a very sophisticated writing system very mysterious quality to them Cartouche 0 box placed around royal name in ancient Egyptian inscriptions o Europeans began to bring artifacts back t the museums 0 Line around the name served to emphasize the name and protect the name 0 Cartouches with names of the kings were worn upon the body amulets o more and more artifacts that came back began to realize that in the obelisk had Greek names written in a cartouche o able to decipher the name Cleopatra and Ptolmey these are Greek names they are arguing that when you have a non Egyptian name there is a one to one correspondence to a hieroglyphic to the phoneme 2 once used as an alphabet 2 well they only function that way only non Egyptian names 2 the alphabet was an advanced and no way could have achieved that no way they could have used it as an alphabet Decipherment Step 2 The Rosetta Stone 0 discovered in the late 18 century 0 probably the most iconic artifacts in history o trilingual inscription that has hieroglyphic demotic Greek text more or less a Greco roman artifact what did it do 0 take the Greek text and look for similarities with demotic texts it stood very close to Coptic 0 start with the latest most recent language and work backwards Young and Champollion 0 represented the key to deciphering hieroglyphics by working on the Rosetta stone 0 rivaled with each other on who can be the first to decipher them 0 both of them struggled with the hieroglyphic text succeeded with the demotic Thomas Young 0 he began to notice that demotic was the way to go back to hieroglyphic 0 put together parallel words between hieroglyphic and demotic o demotic a derivative of hieroglyphic 0 failed because he thought demotic was alphabetic not a ideogram and alphabetic phonetic signs Jean Champollion 0 would crack the code in 1822 0 three arguments ideograms phonetic alphabetic signs one sign could represent one simple phoneme determinatives marked a word that it belonged to a certain class 2 certain hieroglyphic means that words are different meaning 0 went to test his theory in Egypt 0 the breakthrough Champollion read the cartouche of Ramses II and realized that the alphabetic principle operated for Egyptian names as well as foreign names 2 sun in the cartouche is interested in the sound Ra rebus 2 mes is the reed and the last two are ss 2 deciphered Ramses II 1922 Howard Carter discovered Tutankamen King Tut 2 cartouche that reads 14414 15 49
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