PSYC 333 Week 4 notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Moore on Friday February 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 333 at Kansas taught by Christopher Cushing in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/20/15
PSYC 333 Week 4 Chapter 5 Physical Development Brain Body Motor Skills and Sexual Development February 17 2015 Maturation and development overview Changes in height and weight 0 Rapid increase in height and weight over the first two years Birth weight can be expected to double by 46 months Appears to happen in spurts of up to 1 cm per day 0 Growth is more gradual during middle childhood Toddlers are at half their adult height by 2 years old From 2 puberty children gain approximately 2 3 inches and 67 pounds every year 0 Puberty early adolescence there is another rapid growth spurt Changes in body proportions o Cephalocaudal head downward growth Head grows rapidly during fetal period Torso grows rapidly during first year 1 yearadolescence legs 60 of height gain During adolescence trunk grows fastest At birth head and legs each represent 25 of body length At adulthood head is 12 legs are 50 o Proximodistal center outward growth Internal organs develop first Trent reverses in puberty hands and feet followed by limbs then trunk Skeletal development 0 Bones lengthen thicken and harden with age completing most growth by 18 0 Skull has frontanelles soft spots and sutures seams for expansion for brain growth 0 Ankles feet wrists hands develop more bones o Muscular development 0 Infants born with all muscle fibers 0 Increase in density and size particularly during growth spurt of adolescence 0 Variations in physical development 0 Individuals develop at different rates 0 Cultural variations also exist Asian and AfricanAmerican children mature faster than EuropeanAmerican children Brain development 0 Brain growth spurt last three months of prenatal and first two years of life 0 Neural development and plasticity o Neurons basic unit of the brainnervous system most are present at birth Form synapses connective spaces with other neurons 0 nourish neurons and encase them in myelin form throughout life 0 Neural development cell differentiation and synaptogenesis o Neurons can serve any neural function 0 Synaptogenesis formation of synapses o More are formed than needed Rougth half die some stand in reserve injury or new skills Plasticity cells are responsive to experience allows change in the brain 0 Brain differentiation and growth 0 At birth brain associated with biological functioning is most developed 0 Cerebrum and cerebral cortex higher brain centers Primary motor areas primary sensory areas mature first 0 Myelinization PSYC 333 Week 4 0 At birth pathways between sense organs and brain are myelinated o Pathways between muscles and brain are next 0 Reticular formation and frontal cortex Long term concentration Brain development cont Not fully myelinated until pubertyearly adulthood o Enhances efficiency between emotive and regulatory areas of the brain Cerebral lateralization o Cerebrum consists of two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum 0 Each covered by a cerebral cortex Left right side of the body speech hearing verbal memory decision making positive emotions Right left side of the body visualspatial information music touch negative emotions o Lateralization increases with age Hemispherectomy Case Study Borgstein amp Groodtendorst 2002 0 3 year old had entire right hemisphere removed because of epilepsy c Total loss of right motor cortex 0 Total loss of right hemispheric language centers 0 Developed normally became fluent in 4 languages had minor spasms in her arm February 19 2015 Complex regional pain syndrome 0 Uncommon form of chronic pain typically affecting an arm or leg 0 Becomes taut or cold Burning of throbbing pain Sensitivity to temperature Swelling Changes in skin temperature Discoloration Changes in skin and nail growth Stiff joints Muscle spasmatrophy OOOOOOOO Experience as catalyst for neuroplasticity Simons et al 2014 0 Relative to controls CPRS children show more amygdala connectivity with o Cognitiveemotional areas prefrontal cingulate cortex basal ganglia o Sensorimotor thalamus somatosensory cortex 0 Integrative processing 0 Intensive treatment consisting of 34 hours daily of physical therapy and 2 3 hours daily of cognitive behavioral therapy 0 Decreased connectivity between amygdala and motor cortex cingulate insula and frontal areas associated with less painrelated fear Motor development 0 Sequence of motor skills is the same for all infants 0 Timing is not 0 Rate of motor development is not strongly related to future motor development 0 Basic trends in locomotor development 0 Cephalocaudal head downward PSYC 333 Week 4 I Exception is coordination of hip movement before shoulder movement 0 Due to the structure of joints 0 Proximodistal center outward The maturational viewpoint 0 Motor development is a genetically programmed sequence of events 0 The experimentalpractice hypothesis 0 Maturation and practice are important I Wayne Dennis discovers that none of the Iranian infants who spent 2 years lying on their backs could walk and only 15 could sit unaided Motor development cont 0 Dynamical systems theory 0 New skills are constructed as infants actively reorganize existing capabilities o Desire to achieve goal 78 month olds only crawl after they learn to turn their head to see objects develop hand arm preference when reaching and learn to kick with opposite leg of outstretched arm Fine motor development 0 Development of voluntary reaching 0 Prereaching is replaced by voluntary reaching 3 months of age 0 Development of manipulatory skills 0 Clawlike ulnar grasp is replaced by the pincer grasp near the end of the first year Psychological implications of early motor development 0 Motor skills allow for fun social interaction 0 Provide evidence of normal development c Fosters perceptual cognitive and social development 0 Optic flow distance spatial memory Beyond infancy motor development in childhood and adolescence 0 Each year skills improve 0 Large muscles handeye coordination Genders equal in physical ability until puberty o Males continue to improve 0 Females level off or decline Biology less muscle mass Gender role socialization fewer athletic activities Research sports participation and selfesteem among adolescent females 0 Earlier participation in sports associated with higher selfworth in college 0 Participation associated with increased physical competencies 0 Development of more favorable body image 0 Acquisition of desirable masculine traits Assertiveness o All correlated with college selfesteem Puberty the physical transition from child to adult 0 The adolescent growth spurt o Begins at 10 12 for females 0 Begins at 13 for males 0 Increase in height and weight 0 Bodies and faces appear more adultlike o Puberty point at which sexual maturity is reached PSYC 333 Week 4 0 Sexual maturation 0 Timed with growth spurt predictable pattern 0 Girls Onset of breasts and pubic hair development Widening of hips enlarging of uterus and vagina Menarche first menstruation Completion of breast growth Development of testes and scrotum Emergence of pubic hair Growth of penis sperm production Appearance of facial hair Lowering of voice 0 Large individual differences in timing both genders 0 Problems late maturing boys early maturing girls Puberty the physical transition from child to adult cont Secular trends are we maturing earlier 0 Reaching sexual maturity earlier in industrialized societies than in the past 0 Also growing taller and heavier 0 Due to improved nutrition and improved health care Causes and correlates of physical development 0 Biological mechanisms 0 Effects of individual genotypes Set limits for height and rate of maturation 0 Hormonal influences the endocrinology of growth Pituitary gland releases growth hormone stimulates production of estrogen testosterone and androgen 0 Environmental influences 0 Problems of under nutrition Catchup growth if mild and shortterm Marasmus not enough calories or protein small impaired social and intellectual development Kwashiorkor not enough protein fluid collects in face legs and abdomen Vitamin and mineral deficiencies o Zinc very slow growth 0 Iron deficiency anemia social and intellectual impacts 0 Problems of over nutrition Obesity 0 Illnesses lf adequately nourished most do not affect growth long term 0 Emotional stress and lack of affection Nonorganic failure to thrive before 18 months of age 0 Impatient hostile caregivers cause infants to withdraw I Deprivation dwarfism 215 years of age lack of positive involvement with caregiver
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