Hormones and Behavior Part 1
Hormones and Behavior Part 1 PSY:2701:0AAA
Popular in Biological Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tayler Osborn on Friday February 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY:2701:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Mark Blumberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.
Reviews for Hormones and Behavior Part 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/20/15
Hormones Major Glands amp Functions Hormones D a chemical secreted by an endocrine gland into the bloodstream to target organs 0 2 Types 0 Endocrine Glands Glands that secrete hormones inside 0 f the body 0 Exocrine Glands Glands Secreting hormones outside of the body 0 Tears sweat ect Major Endocrine Glands o Hypothalamus Controls hormone secretion 0 Pineal Gland Reproductive maturation Body rhythms o Pituitary Gland Anterior Pituitary Regulates hormone Secretion by Thyroid Adrenal Gland amp Gonads 0 Controls growth Posterior Pituitary Water amp Salt balance 0 Thyroid Growthdevelopment Metabo Iic Rate 0 AdrenalGIands AdrenalCortex Metabolism In ammatory Reaction Adrenal Medulla EmotionalArousal o Pancreas SugarMetabolism o Gut Digestion Appetite o Gonads Reproduction Development Berthold39s Roosters 0 Found that castration of roosters causes failure to develop Normal reproductive behavior 0 No wattlescombsmounting hens Secondary Sexual Characteristics Aggressionweak crowing 0 When the testis was replaced in abdominal cavity proper development occurred Showed that there was an effect even when it wasn39t connected to the body 0 Proof of hormonal excretions 7ypes of Chemical Communication Endocrine Function 0 Hormone released into bloodstream to affect a target organ Synaptic Transmission 0 Localized neurotransmitter s cause change in postsynaptic membrane Autocrine Communication 0 Hormone acts upon releasing cell to affect own activity Detects own hormones to regulate release Paracrine Communication 0 Hormone diffuses to nearby target cells Closer cells more impacted Pheromone Communication 0 Chemicals released outside of the body to communicate with self and others of the same species ie ants have a social stomach to release trail from nest to food Dogs marking territory Allomone Communication 0 Chemicals released to communicate with other species Flowers exclude allomones to insects and birds to distribute pollen Principals of Hormone Action Hormonal In uence limited to changing probability of a behavior happening 0 Does not createinhibit the behavior itself Reciprocal relationship between hormone and behavior 0 Hormones change in response to behavior 0 Behavior changes in response to hormones Levels have a rhythm o Vary on a cycle throughout day Melatonin varies depending on presencelack of light Impacts sleepwake cycle Interact with one another 0 Effects of one hormone changes the actions of another 0 Hormonal Structures are similar in vertebrates but function differs Similarities in Neural and Hormonal Communication Both cells produce and store their chemicals for later use 0 Both require speci c receptors 0 Both have second messengers within target cell that ampli es effects of hormonalsynaptic activity Same chemicals act as messengers in nervousendocrine system Differences in Neural and Hormonal Communication Hormonal Neural Goes into bloodstream to impact Telephone Svstem Direct communication from one cell Broadcast Svstem scattered target organs to another Slow Quick Graded Strength Allor Nothing Hormone Classi cation Amine Hormones O O O O O Smaller simpler Protein hormones A string of the same amino acid Monoamine Hormones Epinephrine thyroxine melatonin Typically bind to speci c hormones located on the surface of the target cell membranes Causing the release of a second messenger FAST Protein Hormone O O Composed of a string of amino acids ACTH FSH LH prolactin insulin oxytocin vasopressin o Bind to speci c hormones located on the surface of the target cell membranes causing the 0 Release of a second messenger o FAST Steroid Hormones o 4 Rings of Carbon Atoms Like cholesterol 0 Dissolve in Lipids Can pass through membrane easily 0 SLOW Feedback Control Negative Feedback 0 Basic hormone control 0 Like a Thermostat Can be set to different levels at different times depending on needs 0 quotSet Pointsquot 0 3 Types Autocrine Feedback 0 Released hormone impacts target organs and feeds back to inhibit releasing gland Target Cell Feedback 0 Released hormone causes a biological effect 0 Effects detected by gland inhibiting further release Brain Regulation Hypothalamic region drives gland 0 Either by neural or hormonal signals 0 Target organ signals to brain to inhibit further release Brain and Pituitary Regulation 0 Brain signals to Pituitary to release hormones Hormones signal to endocrine glands to release their hormones o Hormones signal to pituitary and brain to inhibit release 0 Target cells activate biological response Pituitary Gland Also called Hypophysis Found in socket at base of skull Formerly known as quotMaster Glandquot 0 Now understood to be controlled by Hypothalamus Connected to Hypothalamus by Pituitary Stalk infundibulum Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Axons extend directly to the Posterior Pituitary only 0 2 Main Parts 0 Anterior Pituitary Adenohypophysis o Posterior Pituitary Neurohypophysis 0 Develop from different embryonic tissues and are completely separate in function Posterior Pituitary Process of Secretion o Hypothalamic neurons synthesize hormone Transported along axons o Travels down Pituitary Stalk to Posterior Pituitary o Hormones release from Axon Terminals to capillary bed Capillary bed transports hormones immediately out into circulation Secretes 2 Principal hormones o Oxytocin ReproductiveParental Behavior Contractions during childbirth 0 Sometimes used to induce labordelivery Milk Letdown Re ex o Contraction of mammary gland cells Good example of reciprocal hormonebehavior relationship 0 Vasopressin AVP Makes blood vessels contract Also known as AHD antidiuretic hormone Conserves water in the body Manages thirst Anterior Pituitary Secretes tropic hormones o Hormones that act on other endocrine glands ACTH Impacts activity of Adrenal Cortex o Adrenal Cortex releases steroid hormones Daily Rhythm of ACTH amp Steroid Hormones TSH Increases release of Thyroid Hormones Changes size of Thyroid Gonadotropins FSH o Growthmaturation of eggcontaining follicles F and sperm M LH o Stimulates follicles to release eggs and create a Corpus Luteum Corpus Luteum produces Progesterone o Stimulates testes to produce Testosterone Prolactin 0 Lactation 0 GH 0 In uences growth of cells via protein metabolism 0 Released during sleep 0 Affected by Ghrelin o Stunted by starvation stress amp vigorous exercise 0 Release depends on releasing hormones by Hypothalamus AP Secretion o Releasing Hormones synthesizedproduced in Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Cells 0 HNC axons converge at Median Eminence Marks the point where infundibulum exits Hypothalamus and enters Pituitary Just above Pituitary Stalk Contains Hypophyseal Portal System Capillaries spanning from secretory cells of Hypothalamus to Anterior Pituitary 0 Where Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine cells release their releasing hormones into bloodstream Hypophyseal Portal System capillaries carry releasing hormones to AP 0 Rate of arrival of the releasing hormones determine rate of release of tropic hormones from AP Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Cells 0 Subject to two different types of in uences Circulating Messages 0 Other hormones 0 especially those released in response to tropic hormones feedback loop 0 Blood Sugar Immune System products 0 Blood borne materials more capable of impacting Hypothalamus because it is not as protected by BloodBrain Barrier Synaptic Inputs 0 Route between brain activity and hormonal action 0 Excitatorylnhibitory from other brain regions Allows hormonal secretion to react tobe a product of ongoing eventslearning ie milk letdown re ex Adrenal Gland located on top of kidney Outer Layer amp lnner Layer Adrenal Cortex Outer 80 of gland Distinct layers of cells 0 Each produces its own steroid hormone Adrenal MeduIa Core 20 of gland Rich supply of autonomic nerves Produces o Norepinephrine Noradrenaline Accelerated organ activity 0 Epinephrine Adrenaline Accelerates heart rate 0 Both hormones active in FightFlight response 0 Adrenocorticoids Subgroup Glucocorticoids D effects metabolism of carbsglucose Cortisol 0 Increase blood glucose levels In high doses reduces bodily reaction to tissue injury 0 Important in medication Subgroup Mineralocortocoids D effects sodiumpotassium Aldosterone o Tells kidneys to retain sodium amp retain water 0 Sex Steroids Adrostenedine Patterns of body hair on menwomen o Overproduction in women leads to masculine appearance Thyroid Thyroid Hormones o Thyroxine o Triiodothyronine Effects include growth and brain development Thyroid stores 100day amount of hormone o Hormones are Amine but act like steroid hormones Bind to receptors inside of cell enter nucleus binds to DNA regulates gene expression 0 Process of Secretion o TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone released from Anterior Pituitary o Controlled by Negative Feedback from Thyroid Hormones in the blood Inhibits pituitary release of TSH o No release from Thyroid Production of TRH thyrotropinreleasing homone by hypothalamus When levels of circulating Thyroid Hormone get too low TRH amp TRS are secreted Only chemical in body that contains iodine 0 Insufficient iodine l hyperthyroidism Forces overproduction of TSH Forms a goiter o Swollen thyroid Causes depressionlike symptoms in minor cases 0 Severe cases l coma
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'