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Lecture 9 pt 1 and 2- Bio 2

by: Bree Scalzo

Lecture 9 pt 1 and 2- Bio 2 BIOSC

Marketplace > Biology > BIOSC > Lecture 9 pt 1 and 2 Bio 2
Bree Scalzo
Foundations of Biology 2
Dr. Swiganova

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These are the Natural Selection Lectures
Foundations of Biology 2
Dr. Swiganova
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bree Scalzo on Friday February 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOSC at a university taught by Dr. Swiganova in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 176 views.


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Date Created: 02/20/15
Lecture 9 Evolutions by Natural Selection 1 Typological Thinking a Every organism is made to perfection in structure and function b Types do not change over time c Variations between individuals of different types are insigni cant and unimportant d Types can be ordered into a chain based on increased size and complexity i Not related whatsoever ii By Plato and Aristotle 2 Thinking in 1700s a All species are independent b Life on earth is young 6000 years old c Species do not change 3 Before Darwin a Buffon i Earth is much older than previously believed 75000 years old b Curvier i Documented fossils and showed that extinction had occurred ii Remnants of organism that did not resemble those on earth now c Lamark i Organism may change ii How they changed was incorrect 1 Inheritance of 2 Over usage would make them change 3 Why giraffes have longer necks because they want to reach the high branches d Lyell i Geological forces had gradually shaped the earth and continued to do so 4 Theory of evolution by Natural selection a Wallace and Darwin b 1858j Linnean society of London Wallace c 1859 the origin of species Darwin i Descent with modi cation 1 Species are related by common ancestry 2 Species may change over time 5 Theory a Pattern and Process b Theory of Natural Selection i Pattern 1 Species change over time Fossil record extinction transitional features 2 Descent from common ancestor homology ii Process 1 What leads to the pattern 2 Heritable variations lead to differential reproductive success 6 The Pattern a Evidence for Change Geological Time i F055 1 Bone prints or dung ii Fossil Record 1 All of them put together iii Radiometric Dating b The Geological Timescale i Looking at elements that change over time ii Absolute dating of fossils 2 Accumulation of oxygen and photosynthesis occurs a 24 bill Extant and Extinct Species i Found lrish Elk 1 Looks like something that is living yet is different than anything that is living d Transitional Features i Transition from aquatic environment to land ii Missing link 1 Most middle man features are not fossilized so we cannot really show that the animal was modi ed 2 Can assume and show supporting arguments 3 25 million years Vestigial Traits i Pseudogenes 1 Generated during crossover do not need a function because are redundant ii Reduced wings ostriches and kiwis 1 No function yet are there iii Reduced tail coccyx iv Halters in les 1 Second pair of wings on les are not used for ying v Appendix vi Reduced eyes moles vii Raising hair 1 Scare off predators insulation now have no function when given goose bumps f Descent from common ancestor geographic distribution n D i Finches beaks on the Galapagos ii Although similar different species on different islands iii Monophyletic group 1 Can trace all birds to common ancestor 2 Result of speciation after common ancestor bird came to island g Descent from a common ancestor i Synapomophies 1 Newly derived characteristics yet shared 2 All species arm bones together ii Homologues characteristics 1 Structural homologies a Plesiomorphy i Ancestral characterthe bones 1 Different wings in a bird b Arm wing ipper all have the same bones yet have different shapes c Analogymay be similar but cannot be traced to common ancestor 2 Developmental homologies a Gill pouch in chick human and house cat embryo iii Evident for functional homology 1 Transcriptional Regulator binds to DNA a In this case eye position b 6 differences in amino acid sequence in humans and ies i Compound eyes vs camera eye iv Importance of Independent Datasets 1 Combine independent data sets


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