Psychology 128 Week 1&2 Notes
Psychology 128 Week 1&2 Notes
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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Kaley jorgensen on Monday April 14, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 113 views.
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Date Created: 04/14/14
Reasoning is the central intellectual function of humanity Language 0 If mary had stayed john would have lived 0 You got a haircut Describes the state of mind of the speaker o Irma forgot to let the dog out Is the dog in or out Perception 0 See the world in 3 dimensions 0 Hear a sequence of tones as melody Memory 0 Remembering things from the past 0 Do they grow coffee in brazil fact 0 Do they grow coffee in Paraguay inference Comes very early on Allows humans to thrive Stage 1 reasoning comes without training by age 4 child may have heard this choice 0 eat dinner or no dessert important aspect OR by 5 or 6 a typical child is capable of solving such a problem as accurately as adults stage 2 reasoning child can deal with multiple optionsconclusions age 610 child will exhibit confusion at the conclusion or say you cannot tell if it is correct the child seems to understand that conclusions must follow from premises and seems to appreciate that there are many possible conclusions beginning of personal awareness of their own process metacognition stage 3 reasoning able to reason about things that are not true stages 1 amp 2 find it difficult to reason fake stories because it violates what they know about the content it is only when you enter stage 3 11 years old that they would have no difficulty with counterfactual reasoning reasoning and logic when ppl reason and draw sensible conclusions they say they are rational 0 without direct instruction wo rationality human life would be difficult and social life would be impossible 2 types of reasoning 9 deduction occurs when we reason from generalities to specifics 9 induction generalize from set of fats although deductions from true statements result in true conclusions inductions form true statements do not necessarily result in true generalities abduc on drawing conclusion that offers the best fit Sherlock Holmes Not necessarily the correct one but best fit Memory is the container for cognition Lecture 43 General cognitive system Sensory storage Entryway into attention system 1 Holds information for a brief period so you can pay attention to it o Slapping across the face Sensory storage what does it dowhat is it for A buffer to keep up with high speed input 0 Auditory input speech A buffer to allow pattern recognition 0 Visual input saccades are not a blur A mechanism to focus attention Attention You have to stop focusing on other things in order to process something Cant deal with many things simultaneously Attention deficit disorders processing too many things 0 They try to focus on too much not inhibiting 0 An inhibition deficit Dopamine kids w ADD don39t have enough in prefrontal cortex 0 Given drugs to increase blood flow to prefrontal cortex 2 levels of attention pre attention processing system 1 attentional processing system 1 system 2 pre attention find red dot automatic cannot control it pre attentive processing orienting reflex o baby39s head moving inside the mother39s stomach with sound blinking accommodation rooting reflex and turn towards novelty attention finding red dot with red squares controlled attention coffee bean head automatic processing system 1 rapid invisible autonomous controlled processing system 2 available to conscious understanding you know when they are operating intentionally performed or deliberately not performed demanding of cognitive resources the magic of cognition the stroop effect 0 read the words in color o reading is a fast process automatic competition between cutomatic and controlled processes perceptual motor conflict source of danger 0 50000 deaths in US due to medical error lots of system 1 errors that are life threatening lecture 48 working memory structural description resource energy that allows cognitive activities to perceive modal model of memory long term knowledge feeds into system one short term memory allows you to hold info so you can decide if it is system one or two working memory aka short term memory short term storage conscious awareness of what you access in long term memory ex reading the words with the x o keeps track of what the topics are of the previous sentences so you can read the following ones long term memory knowledge affects ability to recognize habits system of awareness cognitive system describes working memory central executive in working memory that helps you keep track of what is currently happening central executive the boss 0 primary role attention and assigning what is important to components of working memory working memory parameters coding capacity duration forgetting sound when words rhyme it is harder to memorize them sound confusion irrelevant speech effect unattended phonological material gains access to phonological store voices enter phonological loop and interfere with self talk explanation code is phonemic not semantic word length effect syllables or time longer names take more time to memorize working memory how fast you can repeat things in a short period of time capacity linked to speech memory span correlates with rehearsal rate and both increase with age working memory varies with the thing you are trying to remember short term gets better with age the visuo spatial sketch pad this is the second system which stores material in the visual and spatial domain it is responsible for setting up manipulating and storing visual spatial kinesthetic images it is believed to be principally represented in the right hemisphere of the brain visual hair color skin tone height spatial corsi block tast knox cubes ellis island Test for illiterates immigrants to the US 4 blocks in a row tapping with increased sequence in length Iectu re 4 1 0 central executive downloads and uploads ongoing events recodes visual input into auditory and vice versa keep multiple tasks going neurological test PASAT paced auditory serial addition task 0 cognitive function helps identify neurological dysfunction Working memory executive control and prefrontal cortex What is working memory Active maintenance of goal related info in the face of distracters and inference Distracters day dreaming WM tasks memory span tasks Reading span The hat is brown Tomorrow will be sunny The tree is tall Hector works hard Brown sunny tall hard Short term memory does NOT predict IQ Operation span Do arrhythmic task and it is associated with a random word Coun ngspan quot assessments of central executives resources to focus attention and allow you to do multiple tasks at once working memory and uid intelligence controlled attention is closely related to general uid intelligence WM tasks thought to re ect some fundamental aspect of cognition Score on these tasks predict a range of cognitive functions Dichotic listening task subjects repeat aloud words presented to one ear while ignoring the info in the other ear At some point subjects first name is spoken to the ignored ear Report whether they heard their name during the trial Result 20 high WM subject reported 65 low WM span subject reported conclusion high working memory span ppl suppressed distractor information better PFC prefrontal cortex deficits in human Wisconsin card sorting Results no difficulty learning the rule initially memory component but once learning a rule patient could not switch when the examiner changes the rule the Parkinson39s patient has a difficult time switching rules and giving up the rule they have been using indication that its hard to figure out what to do when you discover you are wrong dorsal lateral damage architect study asked to arrange furniture in a room ordinary architect is perfectly capable damage to right dorsal lateral cannot arrange furniture 0 can remember the dimensions of everything but cannot put anything together 0 cannot plan Goel study
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