PY 370 Chapter 7
PY 370 Chapter 7 PY 370
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Friday February 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 252 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/20/15
Chapter 7 Gestalt psychology in Germany and the United States 1 Gestalt Psychology a The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with selforganizing tendencies b This principle maintains that when the human mind perceptual system forms a percept or gestalt the whole has a reality of its own independent of the parts c Behaviorism is another school of though that is beginning to gain attention 2 Wertheimer s Discovery a Father of gestalt b Stroboscope experiments at the correct projection rate the stationary child walked and the stationary horse began to trot c Tachistoscope projected light through two slits d Sometimes light projected ZOOms between the two lights people saw 2 distinct lights and then he decreased time interval between two lights 60 ms he did get apparent movement one light was moving back and forth not two cant perceive it 3 Phi Phenomenon a Introspection could not explain Phi Phenomenon b See two lights as one continuous light bouncing back and forth c The whole experience the apparent movement of one line from one sit to another differed from the sum of its parts 4 Principles of Gestalt Psychology a Holistic thinking b Phenomenological basis experience in itself c Methodologystimulate real life d Isomorphism psychology processes are directly related to biological 5 Gestalt Principles of Perception a Grouping principles i Proximity if 2 items are close together people will group them together ii Similarity if items are similar you are likely to group them together share same color shape etc iii Closure when something resembles a shape even with breaks it will look like a shape even though incomplete iv Figure ground see something as main focal point background image illusion Generalizability of Gestalt Principles 6 Zeigarnik Effect a German waiters remember billuntil paid table is your responsibility until paidnot closed i Lack of closure tension forefront of memory b Zeigarnik had people perform a variety of tasks that were left uncompleted i Participants recalled unfinished tasks better than finished tasks ii CLOSURE MATTERS c Media takes advantage of Zeigarnik Effect 7 Alpha the Chimpanzee and Closure Schiller Chimpanzee named Alpha would be given crayons to draw Wanted to see if Alpha had a need for closure He gave her a pie w a slice out She scribbled and tried to close it All drawing that were incomplete she tried to cerate closure 8 The G stalt Completion Test a Right hemisphere that is creative b Test to examine right hemisphere c If an individual is able to recognize the figures that seem incomplete they passed the test i Man dog horse w rider gangs 9 Gestalt Psychologists wondered if we ever truly perceive reality a You bring your own bias and experiences to any situation b These can prevent us from seeing what is actually there objectively i Vertical horizontal T s same length even though vertical looks longer 10 Kohler succeeds Stumpf as director of the Berlin Psychological Institute a Gestalt Psychology at its peak b Hitler said all Iewish professors psychologists etc be excused c In 1933 Jews were expelled from civil service which included all professional positions in Germany i 12 of faculty were Iews ii Some faculty ed to the US including historically black colleges in the US 11Wertheimer s work in the US a Wertheimer removed from position in 1933 and expelled from Germany b Wertheimer began teaching at New School for Social Research in NY city c Wanted to teach children critical reasoning and actually learn NOT memorize d Productive Thinking wrote book but died before it was published by his son 12 Wertheimer s views on Education a Wrote 100 philosophers and how they were able to create their scientific discoveries Einstein Freud etc 9 41 responded what common principles did they share i Part of making discoveries involves being able to be exible look at something from all angles being open to novelty Opposed rote memorization c He thought it was possible to instill productive thinking in all children d He believed that creativity involved exibility and novelty 13 Kohler s insight learning a Thorndike was arguing that animals not capable of higher reasoning just 89R connections i Teach animals certain behavior result in reward that s it b Kohler felt that the proper tasks had not been used to examine reasoning c Kohler developed his famous insight learning tasks i Thought animals could reach different goals believe they were capable worked with chimpanzee ii Be capable of more insight complex learning d Results of Kohler s Studied i Chimpanzees capable of using insight and problemsolving to obtain bananas ii One stick couldn t reach banana but if they were given two sticks they would put 2 sticks together as 1 so that they could reach banana problem solving e What did Kohler do differently from Thorndike i Animals in home enclosures ii Tested animals in presence of others iii He described results statistically 14 Properties of Insight Learning a Animal sees or perceives solutionAha quick all of a sudden whereas Thorndike s trial and error is slow and gradual Insight learning does not depend on rewards c Insight learning involves positive transfer if they learned concept of problem solving they could transfer information in variations stool to get banana sticks to get bananas d Once they found something that helped reached their goal they applied it to reach new goals 15 Kurt Lewin a Interested in motivation and action One of the founders of Social Psychology and the study of Group Dynamics Topological fields to depict psychological phenomena Life spacedepicted someone s life in an eggshaped structure i Child might have a simple life space adult may have a more complex one because of all life s obstacles B fPE Inside of a life space is the contents of omeones life goals and personality He was a very personable person and was obsessed with drawing tgese
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