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BIOL 1040 | Lecture notes from 4/21

by: Sarah Stewart

BIOL 1040 | Lecture notes from 4/21 BIOL 1040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 1040 > BIOL 1040 Lecture notes from 4 21
Sarah Stewart
GPA 4.0

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Covers all of Chapter 46 from the texbook
General Biology II
Dr. William Surver
Class Notes
Biology, Ecology, Environment
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Stewart on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
Sarah Stewart BIOL 1040 Final Exam notes Chapter 46: Ecosystems Ecosystem – an association of organisms and their physical environment, interconnected by an ongoing flow of energy and a cycling of materials through it Participants: • Primary producers – autotrophs that can capture sunlight energy and incorporate it into organic compounds; only about 10% • Consumers – heterotrophs that feed on the tissues of other organisms o Herbivores – most direct contact with converted energy o Carnivores o Omnivores o Parasites – extract energy from host organisms o Decomposers – extract energy from remains of organisms o Detritovores - small invertebrates that feed on partly decomposed particles called detritus • Ecosystems are complex, open systems through which energy flows/materials are cycled • Require energy and nutrient input to generate (heat) energy and nutrient output, must be efficient Trophic levels – hierarchy of energy transfers; “who eats whom” • Level 1 – consists of producers closest to the energy source • Level 2 – consists of herbivores Sarah Stewart BIOL 1040 Final Exam notes • Level 3 and above – consists of carnivores • Decomposers feed on organisms from all levels Food chain – a simple sequences of who-eats-whom • Interconnected food chains comprise food webs in which the same food resource is often part of more than one food chain • Diets can change depending on availability of food Energy flow – in terms of productivity, gross primary productivity is the ecosystem’s total rate of photosynthesis; net primary productivity is the rate of energy storage in plant tissues in excess of the rate of respiration by the plants themselves – what’s available to be passed down the food chain • Primary productivity varies by seasonally and by habitat • Harsher the environment, slower plant growth/lower productivity • At each trophic level, the bulk of the energy received from previous levels is used in metabolism • The rest is released as heat energy and lost to ecosystem • As you move down trophic levels, less energy can be extracted – must eat more • No recycling of energy in an ecosystem, only nutrients can be recycled; neither enter nor leave the cycle • Energy supply is finite Biological magnification – when substances become more and more concentrated in the tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels Sarah Stewart BIOL 1040 Final Exam notes • DDT was an insecticide used to manage mosquito population, but some mosquitos adapted a tolerance to it • Because animals fed on mosquitos affected by DDT, concentrations of the insecticide just increases in organisms as it moved up the food chain • DDT now banned in the US


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