Biology 2 Chapter 46 Notes
Biology 2 Chapter 46 Notes BIOL 1040
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Chapter 46 – Ecosystems The Nature of Ecosystems o An ecosystem is an association of organisms and their physical environment, interconnected by an ongoing flow of energy and a cycling of materials through it o The participants – in order to understand the complexity of ecosystems it is necessary to know the key participants Primary producers are autotrophs that can capture sunlight energy and incorporate it into organic compounds o Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on the tissues of other organisms Herbivores eat plans Carnivores eat animals Omnivores eat a variety of organisms Parasites reside in or on living hosts and extract energy from them; decomposers are also heterotrophs and include fungi and bacteria that extract energy from the remains or products of organisms o Detritovores include small invertebrates that feed on partly decomposed particles of organic matter (detritus) o Ecosystems are complex They are open systems through which energy flows and materials are cycled They require energy and nutrient input and generate energy (usually as heat) and nutrient output o Nutrients neither enter nor leave cycle o Energy is not recycled Captured by producers Transferred through consumers Each transfer loses energy o Diets can change depending upon the availability of food Trophic Levels o Trophic levels Trophic (feeding) levels are a hierarchy of energy transfers…”who eats whom” Level 1 (closest to the energy source) consists of producers Level 2 comprises herbivores Level 3 and above are carnivores Decomposers feed on organisms from all levels Food Web o A food wed is a simple sequence of who eats whom is called a food chain o Interconnected food chains comprise food webs in which the same food resource is often part of more than one food chain Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem o Energy flow is considered in terms of productivity Gross primary productivity is the ecosystem’s total rate of photosynthesis Net primary productivity is the rate of energy storage in plant tissues in excess of the rate of respiration by the plants themselves o Primary productivity varies Seasonal variation Variation by habitat The harsher the environment, the slower plant growth and the lower the productivity o At each trophic level, the bulk of the energy received from the previous level is used in metabolism o The energy is released as heat energy and lost to the ecosystem o Eventually all energy is released as heat energy Biological Magnification o Biological magnification results when substances become more and more concentrated in the tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels of a food web o DDT is a good example o DDT is now banned in the US Energy Flow, Nutrient Cycling, Trophic Levels & Feeding Relationships
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