Week 7 Notes - Globalization, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict
Week 7 Notes - Globalization, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict
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Date Created: 02/20/15
Anth 298 Intro to the Middle East Week 7 Globalization and the ArabIsraeli Con ict Part 1 Globalization 0 The conventional understanding is that globalization is a natural process 0 Defenders of globalization see it as benefitting everyone Market Expansion 0 Historical process involving the integration of societies that were not previously part of the global economy 0 Eastern Europe after the Cold War 0 Desire to resolve the profitability crisis 0 Began in the US 0 Postwar was a golden age of capitalism with lots of benefits and good wages 0 Made the corporate sector much less profitable o Facilitated by 0 Technological innovation 0 Neoliberalism o Deregulation of finance that allowed corporations to become international 0 Neoliberalism o Valued markets above all else 0 Policies to deregulate finance capital 0 Reduction in public investments Agents of Globalization o Bretton Woods Institutions 0 Formed to transform global economy 0 International Monetary Fund 1944 0 World Bank 1944 0 World Trade Organization 0 States were given a lot of control over financial policy 0 Restrictions on multinational companies 0 High taxes o In the 1980s the area of operation expanded from Eastern Europe to the global economy 0 Role of the state in global economy began to decline role of the private sector increased Implications of Globalization 0 Integration of new areas into the global economy disintegration of local economies 0 Social transformation 0 Disruption of social relations 0 Old vs new loyalties 0 States no longer seen as providers of public services citizens didn t look to their governments as much Middle East Encounters with the West 0 Earlier history 0 France colonized Algeria Tunisia Morocco and Egypt 0 1882 England invaded Egypt 0 After World War I European powers were involved in the creation of new national states 0 France took over Syria and Lebanon 0 Britain took over Transj ordan Palestine Iraq 0 Republican states Egypt Iraq Syria 0 Lots of nationalist movements in the early 20th century 0 Wanted stateled development 0 During 40s and 50s colonial powers were kicked out 0 Military officers took power 0 Land reform and industrialization for progress which required borrowing money 0 Monarchies Gulf states Jordan and Morocco 0 Political process didn t change much 0 States gave public services free education healthcare etc in order to legitimize their statehood 1980s Crisis 0 Economic crisis affected nonoil producing countries in the Middle East 0 Drop in oil prices 0 Lower wages for workers in nonoil producing countries who worked in the oil producing countries 0 Limited states incomes 0 States couldn t keep up public services 0 Gulf States were mostly shielded from the effects Neoliberal Globalization in Middle East 0 Structural Adjustment Policies reduce state expenditure and increase role in the private sector of the economy 0 Privatizing public sector firms 0 Opening up of previously protected markets agriculture housing food etc to private sector Social Impact 0 Statecitizen relations end of postwar social contract 0 By the 1990s new reforms eroded the legitimacy of the elite 0 Over 1 million people forced off their land 0 Less land being used for food production 0 Con ict between workers peasants and unemployed o Worker protests increased 0 Fragmentation of social relations 0 Nature of con ict within villages changed Globalization and the Arab Uprising 0 Technology played important role in mobilization of people 0 Privatization had led to high levels of poverty and unemployment 0 Uprisings were ways of holding elites accountable for their decisions 0 People were trying to organization and have a way to participate in government democratically 0 Bread Freedom and Social Justice main chant of protesters in Egypt Globalization and Islamic Fundamentalism 0 Violent response by those excluded from political process 0 Presenting themselves as the new elite 0 Trying to reconstruct old gender roles 0 Has become popular among youth 0 Taking advantage of failures of previous regimes Part 2 Myths about Palestinian Region Jews and Arabs have always fought 0 Con ict is a 20th century development J ewishArab con ict has been a huge bloodbath o 1948present day has resulted in approximately 42000 deaths 0 Con icts that had higher death count I 2011 Syrian Civil War I 1991 Iraq Uprisings I 19621970 North Yemen Civil War Israel and Palestine Israel became a state in 1948 Palestine was a province of Syria within the Ottoman Empire 0 There has never been an official Palestinian State 0 Most people were Arabic Muslims During period of time when the region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire Jews Muslims and Christians mostly got along Zionism Movement for an establishment of a homeland for the Jews Began at same time as other nationalist movements in the Middle East Response to increases in antiSemitism in Eastern Europe 0 Pogroms in Russia raids and violence against Jewish settlements Diasporic Victimhood Jews were driven out of their Biblical homeland by Greeks 0 Those driven out of the Middle East were known as the diaspora Came at a time when characterizing people by race was popular in academia o Came with stereotypes about personalities 0 Jews were usually portrayed negatively Jewish homeland would be a place to start over and throw off negative stereotypes Decided the best place was Jerusalem and surrounding area eretz yisrael Land of Israel because it was Biblical and historical Jewish homeland 1897 Zionist Congress Meeting in Switzerland Palestinian Nationalism Developed around same time as Zionism Saw decay and collapse of Ottoman Empire 0 People in the area didn t have national identity identified as Arab Muslims mostly o 87 Muslim o 9 Christian 0 4 Jewish 0 Looking at what would be best for them after the Empire ended Beginning of Con ict o Aliyah movements 18821903 0 Encouraging Jews to move to Palestine to increase Jewish population there 0 Increasing land purchases by European Jews 0 Increasing economic competition 0 Arab community believed their identity was being undermined 0 Ottoman Empire collapsed after the end of WWI 0 SykesPicot Agreement 1916 0 British and French agreeing to divide up the Middle East after the war 0 British double promises o HusaynMcMahon Agreement 1915 promise that Great Britain would recognize and support independence of Arab people in all areas demanded by Sherif of Mecca o Balfour Declaration 1917 promise of establishing home for the Jews in Palestine British Mandate over Palestine 0 Ultimately the British used both Zionists and Arabs for own purposes 0 British interests included preventing independence 0 Takes Palestine Iraq and Transjordan 19201948 0 During the 20s and 30s Jews Arabs and British fought each other 0 Haganah forerunner of Israeli Defense Force forms 1921 primarily to resist British colonialism 0 Jews continue to purchase land displacing Palestinian Arabs Holocaust o Hitler s final solution to the Jewish problem 0 6 million Jews murdered 0 90 of Jews in Poland Austria Germany and Baltic countries killed 0 US closed its doors to Jewish migration 0 There was an underground movement to try to get Jews to Palestine but many were turned away by the British PostWar 0 After the war Britain was bankrupt so they had to give up their colonies 0 Gave Palestine over to the UN 0 UN Partition Plan creation of a Jewish state with 52 of Palestinian land 0 West Bank would become Arab Palestinian State 0 Jews accepted the Partition Plan but it was rejected by all surrounding Arab countries Armed Con ict 0 Israel declares independence 1948 with the British withdrawal 0 One day later all surrounding Arab countries invaded Israel 0 Led to 18 months of fighting 0 Israel secured their designated land then counterinvaded Palestine 0 At the end of the war Palestine was restricted to the West Bank 0 Egypt took the Gaza Strip 0 Transj ordan took the West Bank 0 There was another war in 1967 which lasted only 6 days 0 Israel took the West Bank Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula 0 Palestinian population decreased from 700000 to 150000 in 1949 o Palestinians say they were driven out o Israelis say the Palestinians chose to leave 0 In reality some were driven out others left to escape the war zone 0 Many Palestinians went to Jordan now make up a majority of Jordan s population 0 Creation of the Palestinian Diaspora Present Day 0 Currently mix of Israeli Jews and Palestinians in the West Bank 0 Palestinians are currently about IA of population in Israel not including the West Bank 0 Have Israeli citizenship but treated as secondclass citizenships 0 Political Zionism successful in creating Jewish state 0 Surrounded by hostile Arab countries 0 In ux of large numbers of refugees from European and Arab states 0 a nation of orphans and refugees 0 No common language or culture among Jewish immigrants
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