Psychology 108 Week 1&2 Notes: Cognitive Psychology
Psychology 108 Week 1&2 Notes: Cognitive Psychology
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Date Created: 04/14/14
Lecture 1 History of the scientific study of thought Powerfully influenced by prevailing zeitgeist of the times 0 Zeitgeist time spirit 0 The ideas prevalent in a period and place Examples of zeitgeists in pop Culture 0 8039s 6039s 0 postmodernism mental set a perspective andor set of assumptions that define how ppl view a problem often constraining alternative approaches in some fundamental manner bruner potter paradigm out of focus images more difficult to recognize it hey are initially presented in a very out of focus level 0 very out of focus objects difficult to distinguish insight problems 6 coin problem 6 matchstick problem make pyramid lily pond problem elevator prob 56 BC prob twin problem mental set defines how you see the problem and what type of solutions you attempt zeitgeist serve as mental sets what are some examples o fzeitgeists in psychology Behaviorism only behaviors can be studied Mindbrain dualism Descartes 0 Mind brain are distinct Structuralism Cognitive psychology Cognitive neuroscience Functionalism AA Provides a mental set that defines how ppl see the issues structuralism mind set the mind and its perceptions can be understood by analyzing those perceptions into their constituent components method introspection looking inward at pieces of info Passing through consciousness proponents problem with introspection 0 different ppl get diff results 0 cannot introspect on all processes o introspections can be WRONG with reducing mind to structure 0 overlooks dynamic processes 0 most experiences unfold in time 0 theme 9 process functionalism mental set 0 the mind is best understood by examining the process of mind rather than its contents 0 focus on the functional William James associationism and behaviorism mental set 3 basic principles 0 connectionist learning results from the co occurrence of events or actions that occur at the same time o reductionist complex behavior can be explained by the understanding the simple associations on which it is based 0 environmental assumes all aspects of behavior are learned ebbinqhaus 1885 mind set 9 reductionistic believed that an understanding of memory could be reduced to the info of simple associations among nonsense syllables procedure careful experimentation developed first experimental examination of memory quantified his results demonstrated the viability of an experimental examination of memory nonsense syllable procedure measures of retention recall recollection o recognition savings 0 repetitions to memorize serial position curve tend to remember the first and last items studied best forgetting forget the most after 20 minutes more rapid at first then slow overlearning additional rehearsals past mastery results in slower forgetting greater savings in relearning behaviorists mental set exclusive focus on behavior believed that internal representations were beyond the scope of science 0 limited investigations to operationally defined behaviors all behavior can be understood in terms of a set of relatively basic learning principles all behaviors are learned primary principles classical conditioning 0 associated biological response to a learned stimuli Pavlov dogs bell causes saliva Operant conditioning o Learned response 0 Learn to press a bar to get food Problems with behaviorism Not all associations are equally learnable 0 Not all learning is done through reinforcement Language cannot be learned solely by learning stimulus response associations Does not account for information processing 0 Can think of info flowing through the mind like information flowing through a computer or a telephone system Computer metaphor Mental processes are similar to computers q Lecture 42 History of cognitive psych the emergence of modern cognitive psych the information processing approach Atkinson shiffrin model sensory memory capacity very large modality same as experience decay milliseconds short term memory working memory RAM Limited capacity 7 2 items Modality acoustic recording Decay seconds longterm memory 0 hard drive capacity unlimited coding semantic remember the meaning of the information decay modest focus active mental processes multiple stages of info Processing top down processes understanding influences on what we perceive 0 THE CAT 0 we construct reality bottom up processes how perception influences what we understand focus internal representations experiences are transformed into representations that stands for something in the real world 0 symbolic representations arbitrary symbols words letters s 0 analogue representations resemble what they correspond to pictures images research methods 1 controlled laboratory experiments characterization experimenter conducts research in a lab setting in which she controls for as many aspects as possible advantages isolation of factors best way to test hypothesis disadvantages lack ecological validity external validity 0 degrees to which a finding can be generalized to real world situations 2 psychobiological research characterization studies relationship between cognitive performance and cerebral events and structures examples postmortem studies animals PET fMIR EEG EEG fM RI TMS advantages hard evidence of cognitive functions by relating them to physiological activity disadvantages expensive risk of making inferences of normal brain functions based on abnormal brain functioning many phenomena hard to study in this context Measures electrical brain waves High temporal resolution low temporal resolution where in the brain it is taking place high spatial res low tem Res 0 precise in knowing where exactly in the brain it is taking place 0 don39t know WHEN it took place measures BOLD 9 blood oxygenation level dependent signal isolate and localize brain processes Changes brain activity Depolarizes neurons Changes brain activity 3 Self reports characterization pp s reports of their own cognition in progress or as recollected advantages introspective insights from participants point of view which may be unavailable via other means disadvantages inability to report on processes that are occurring outside of awareness data gathering may influence cognitive process being reported 4 Case studies characterization intensive study of a single ind Advantages richly detailed info about individuals including information about historical and current contexts 0 Very good theory development Disadvantages small sample questionable generalization to other cases 5 naturalistic observation characterization obs Real life settings in classrooms work homes advantages high ecological validity disadvantages lack experimental control 6 computer simulations and artificial intelligence characterization simulation 9 attempt to make computers stimulate human cognitive performance AI 9 attempt to make computers demonstrate intelligent cognitive performance regardless of its resemblance to human cognitive processing advantages clear testing of theoretical models and predictions disadvantages limits of hardware and software brain may operate differently from current computers mental sets can lead to limitations zeitgeists limitations etc limitations of current zeitgeists Always hard to know the limitations of current mental set until it is broken Some possibilities inadequate attention to the first person experience problems with assumptions of brain measures limitations of relying on western undergrads as data possible limitations of assumption of material reductionism inadequate understanding of the importance of evolution inadequate understanding of social context material reduction reduce all mental experiences into simple brain states cant understand experience entirely by just understanding the brain Have to understand consciousness PERCEPTION Sensation vs perception Sensation conscious outcome of sense organs and projection regions I detect something don39t need to know what it is Perception info acquired from the environment via the sense organs is transformed organized into conscious experiences I know recognize appreciate what I am sensing and It means something to me 3 stages of visual processing 1 reception absorption of physical energy by receptors 2 transduction translation of physical energy into electrochemical activity of the nervous system 3 coding how info is encoded and represented relationship between aspects of physical stimulus and resultant nervous system perceptual phenomena size and shape constancies reflect mechanisms whereby perception of a distal object stays the same despite proximal changes in perception implies storage of a structural presentation depth cues monocular or binocular sources of info that convey info about relative distance of objects from viewer involve cues about structure movement and proximate of objects perceptual organization 2 complementary issues organizing coherent objects and events out of segregated sensoryperceptual inputs binding parsing the perceptual world understanding which inputs belong together and which come from separate objects gestalt psych o lawof pragnaz perceptual system organizes to the simplest and mo 0 see slides went too fast 0 examples proximity similarity in size symmetry closure shapes examples figure ground segregation a type of perceptual organization in which edges are assigned to regions for purposes of shape discrimination gestalt theory in 21 century basic perceptual principles have survived bottom up and top down perception understand how expectancies knowledge context influences experiences of the world bottom up physical characteristics of stimulus drive perception realism top down knowledge expectations or thoughts influence perception constructivism we construct the world Archibad s vegetable head made of veggies lecture 37 change blindness detecting differences between two scenes top down processing encourages us to assume that the basic meaning of the scene will remain stable important changes identified more quickly do not store a detailed representation of a scene intentional blindness monkey basketball overactive topdown processing visual system is fairly accurate in creating the gist of general interpretation of a scene template theories a miniature copy or template of each known pattern is stored in long term memory problem not adaptable import large storage requirements feature theories patterns consist of a set of specific features or attributes advantages elementary features can combine to form multiple objects problems context effects in perception o recognition can take place when features are occluded monocular depth cues linear perspective parallel lines appear to converge as they go into the distance texture gradient distortion in size where closer objects have copared to father away shading familiar size motion parallax the apparent motion of two stationary targets at different distances due to a change in observer position further target appears to move more slowly in the same direction binocular cues to depth binocular disparity different images to each eye s a function of object distance binocular convergence rotation of eyes depends on object distance large difference in rotation close small difference far why study illusions Reveal constraintsbiases on perception Constraints are perceptual assumptions that we make 0 Usually are correct but occasionally wrong 0 When wrong illusion results Mueller lyer illusion o Arrows Monocular depth cues Escher staircase waterfall Illusions relating to lateral inhibition Neighboring neurons inhibit each other Brightness activates neurons more than darkness We are sensitive to chance and relative values Circles looking small or big depending on its surroundings Color constancy Perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions Shape constancy regardless of changes 0 an objects orientation the shape of the object is perceived the same Importance of the bottom up process Iames Gibson39s ecological approach to visual perception Emphasis on how features of environment determine perception Top down theories ignore motion Most illusions occur in static Invariance aspect of the visual array that do not change Optical ow patterns info seems to expand outward from the point towards which one is moving The ability to stay on course involves keep the unchanging invariant center of the optical ow pattern centered on the desired destination Point light displays of people Motion invariances allow detection of human motion Phonemic restoration Under certain conditions expectancies leads sounds missing from a speech to be hallucinated and heard 0 Armadillo Mcgurk effect Top down processes integrate perceptual and auditory cues leading to the experience of compromise phoneme We are not experiencing reality we make it Make inferences to make its best guess of reality Lecture 49 Attention and consciousness Exploding chilken demo Attention is narrow We think we see the whole world but much is a construction Limits of attention Trying to attend to everything at onec is more than the cognitive process can handle Attention concentration of mental activity Several kinds of attention processes Divided attention Divided attention tasks o Trying to pay attention or two or more simultaneous messages Respond to appropriately to each message Speed and accuracy suffer Multitasking Walking talking Reading and IM Ppl believe that they can multitask but research does not support this I ppl perform faster and more accurately if working at 1 task at a time o driving studies I ppl s rxn times when driving are 20 slower with cell phone OOOOOO dichotic listening one message presented to left ear and different message presented to right ear ppl notice very little about the unattended ear what is missed from unattended channel Same message different times Changedlanguage We are oblivious to material in unattended ear What is maintained Physical characteristics Tone of voice Very important meanings 0 Cocktail party phenomena hear name in unattended channel 0 Switching meaning from one channel to the other Broadbent s filter theory early selective filter allows ppl to attend to one channel based on physical characteristics problems moray cocktail party Triesman changed message subjects followed meaning in the unattended channel Treiesman s filter amplitude theory filter turns down the volume on unattended channel assumes o preattentive analysis much more complex o filter is not all or none Deutcsch and Deutsch late selection theory All incoming stimuli are processed however quickly Unattended information is not reported but has in uence on meaning A hybrid perceptual load theory everyone has limited attentional capacity the amt of attentional capacity allocated to the main task depends on its perceptual load the number of units in the display and the nature of processing required for each unit early selection occurs when load is high late selection dominates when load is low visual search variables in uencing visual search 0 isolated feature finding the X or the T ppl notice something when it is present rather then when it is absent automaticity characteristics occurs without intention stroop demo does not reveal itself to conscious process consumes no conscious resources characteristics of control or conscious process requires intention conscious consumes resources consciousness ppl have relatively complete access to some thought processes but only limited access to other thought processes 3 levels of consciousness non conscious information that is outside of awareness the activation of associates of read words experiential conscious the contents of consciousness whatever you daydream about while reading meta awareness ones of explicit understanding of their conscious experience recognition that we have been daydreaming instead of reading unconscious processing subliminal perception unconscious priming automatic priming from one object to the next priming presentation of a priming object just before another object leads to facilitated processing of the second object if they are related thought suppression attempt to eliminate thoughts ideas images related to undesirable stimulus do not think about the white bear rebound effect initial suppression of a specific thought can produce a rebound effect after stop trying to keep it out of mind consciousness is routinely filled with thoughts they we were previously trying to keep out of it
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