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Anatomy and Physiology 2

by: Ashlee Wilson

Anatomy and Physiology 2 BIOL 2020

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Biology > BIOL 2020 > Anatomy and Physiology 2
Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3

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Chapter 27 notes
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2020 at University of Memphis taught by Martha Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 04/21/16
A&P Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis Fluid Compartments and Fluid Homeostasis  In adults, body fluids make up between 55% and 65% of total body mass.  Body fluids are present in two main compartments—inside cells (2/3) and outside cells (1/3).  Intracellular fluids is cytosol.  Extracellular fluid is interstitial fluid (80%) and blood plasma (20%).  The plasma membrane of cells separates intracellular fluid from interstitial fluid.  Blood vessel walls divide the interstitial fluid from blood plasma.  Capillary walls are thin enough to allow exchange of water and solutes between blood plasma and interstitial fluid.  Filtration, reabsorption, diffusion and osmosis allow continuous exchange of water and solutes among body fluid compartments.  The balance of inorganic compounds that dissociate into ions (electrolytes) is closely related to fluid balance.  The body gains water by ingestion and metabolic synthesis.  The body loses water via urination, perspiration, exhalation and in feces.  The level of aerobic respiration determines the volume of metabolic water formed. The amount of water formed is directly proportional to the amount of ATP produced.  When water loss is greater than water gain, dehydration occurs leading to increased thirst.  Elimination of excess body water occurs through urine production.  The amount of urinary salt loss is the main factor determining body fluid volume.  The two main solutes in urine are sodium ions (Na ) and chloride ions (Cl ).  Wherever solutes go, water follows.  3 major hormones control renal Na and Cl : Angiotensin 2, Aldosterone, & Atrial Natriuretic peptide(ANP).  The major hormone that regulates water loss is antidiuretic hormone (ADH)  Water intoxication occurs when excess body water causes cells to swell dangerously.  This may occur when a person consumes water faster than the kidneys can excrete it. Electrolytes in Body Fluids  Ions formed when electrolytes dissociate and dissolve: Control osmosis of water between fluid compartments, help maintain the acid-base balance, carry electrical current, & serve as cofactors.  The concentration of ions is expressed in units of milliequivalents per liter (mEq/liter).  Blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid have different concentrations of electrolytes and protein ions.  Blood plasma contains many protein ions and interstitial fluid contains only a few.  Sodium: most abundant ions in extracellular fluid- Used for impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid and electrolyte balance & It’s level is controlled by aldosterone, ADH and ANP.  Chloride: a major extracellular ion- Helps regulate osmotic pressure between compartments, forms HCL in the stomach, & Regulation of Cl- balance is controlled by aldosterone.  Potassium: most abundant cation in intracellular fluid- Involved in fluid volume, impulse conduction, muscle contraction and regulating pH & Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone) regulate the plasma level.  Bicarbonate: important plasma ion- Major member of the plasma acid- base buffer system & Kidneys reabsorb or secrete it for final acid-base balance.  Calcium: most abundant ion in the body- Structural component of bones and teeth, Used for blood coagulation, neurotransmitter release, muscle tone, excitability of nerves and muscles, & Level in plasma regulated by parathyroid hormone.  Phosphate: occurs as calcium phosphate salt- Used in the buffer system & Regulated by parathyroid hormone and calcitriol.  Magnesium: an intracellular cation- Activates enzymes involved in carbohydrate and protein metabolism & Used in myocardial function, transmission in the CNS and operation of the sodium pump. Acid-Base Balance  The pH of arterial blood ranges from 7.35 to 7.45. Several mechanisms maintain this range.: Buffer systems, Exhalation of carbon dioxide, & kidney excretion of H+.  Buffer systems include: Protein buffer system: most abundant in intracellular fluid and blood plasma. When pH rises, the COOH group dissociates to act like an acid.  When pH falls, the free amino group dissociates to act like a base.  Hemoglobin in red blood cells acts as a buffer:  Carbonic acid-bicarbonate–buffer system: this is based on the bicarbonate ion (HCO ) w3ich acts as a weak base, and carbonic acid (H 2O )3which acts as a weak acid.  Phosphate buffer system: this system acts similarly to the carbonic – acid-bicarbonate buffer system. Dihydrogen phosphate (H PO ) and 2 4 monohydrogen phosphate (HPO 42–) are the ions used in this system.  Exhalation of carbon dioxide: CO mixes2with water in the blood to form carbonic acid (H CO2). 3xhaling CO leads 2o less acid production and a rise in pH. Retaining CO lea2s to more acid production and a drop in pH. + +  Kidney excretion of H : Excreting H in the urine removes nonvolatile acids. The proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys secrete H into the tubular fluid. +  Some H secreted into the tubular fluid of the collecting duct is buffered by HPO 42–and NH . 3he buffers are excreted in the urine. Acid-Base Balance  Acid-base imbalances may occur.  Acidosis: blood pH is below 7.35  Alkalosis: blood pH is above 7.45  Respiratory acidosis: blood pH drops due to excessive retention of CO 2 leading to excess H CO 2 3  Respiratory alkalosis: blood pH rises due to excessive loss of CO as in 2 hyperventilation.  Metabolic acidosis: arterial blood levels of HCO falls.3– –  Metabolic alkalosis: arterial blood levels of HCO rises.3


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