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Anatomy and Physiology 2

by: Ashlee Wilson

Anatomy and Physiology 2 BIOL 2020

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Biology > BIOL 2020 > Anatomy and Physiology 2
Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3

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Chapter 28 notes
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2020 at University of Memphis taught by Martha Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 04/21/16
A&P Chapter 28 The Reproductive System Male Reproductive System  Organs include: testes, ductus deferens, epididymis, ejaculatory ducts, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands, scrotum and penis.  Testes: paired, oval glands in the scrotum partially covered by the tunica vaginalis.  Internal to the tunica vaginalis is a connective tissue capsule, the tunica albuginea that extends inward to form septa that create compartments.  Seminiferous tubules carry sperm produced within them (spermatogenesis) out of the testes.  Spermatogenesis begins with spermatogonia (diploid stem cells) that differentiate into diploid primary spermatocytes.  The primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis I to become two secondary spermatocytes (haploid).  Meiosis II takes place and the secondary spermatocytes become four spermatids.  Sperm: designed to reach and penetrate the secondary oocyte in order to achieve fertilization and create a zygote.  The head contains a nucleus with 23 chromosomes.  The acrosome covers the head and contains enzymes to help with penetration.  The neck contains centrioles that form the microtubules that make up the rest of the tail.  The middle piece contains mitochondria that make ATP for locomotion of the sperm.  The principal piece and end piece make up the tail used for movement.  Hormones control testicular function. At puberty gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary gland to produce luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).  LH stimulates cells in the testes to produce testosterone.  FSH stimulates spermatogenesis.  Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone produce several effects: Prenatal development, Development of male sexual characteristics, Development of sexual function, & Stimulation of anabolism  A negative feedback system controls the blood level of testosterone.  There is a system of ducts in the male reproductive system. Sperm and fluid travel from the seminiferous tubules to straight tubules and then to a network of ducts.  Efferent ducts carry the sperm to the epididymis. Sperm mature here and degenerated sperm are reabsorbed.  The epididymis propels sperm into the ductus (vas) deferens.  The ductus (vas) deferens exits the tail of the epididymis and ascends through the spermatic cord into the into the pelvis. It loops over the ureter and passes over the side and down the posterior surface of the urinary bladder.  The spermatic cord ascends out of the scrotum and contains the ductus deferens, testicular artery, veins draining the testes, autonomic nerves, lymphatic vessels and the cremaster muscle.  The ejaculatory ducts arise from the junction of the duct from the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens.  The urethra is the duct shared by the reproductive and urinary systems. Both semen and urine pass through it. It passes through the prostate gland (prostatic urethra), deep muscles of the perineum (intermediate or membranous urethra) and the penis (spongy urethra).  Accessory glands include: Seminal vesicles (glands)—secrete an alkaline, viscous fluid containing fructose, prostaglandins and clotting proteins. Prostate: a single, donut-shaped gland that secretes a milky, slightly acidic fluid containing citric acid, proteolytic enzymes, acid phosphatase and seminalplasmin.  Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) glands: secrete an alkaline fluid during sexual arousal that neutralizes acids from urine and mucus for lubrication.  Semen: a mixture of sperm and seminal fluid.  The volume of an average ejaculate is 2.5-5 ml. with 50–150 million sperm per ml.  The pH is 7.2–7.7  Penis: containing the urethra it is a passageway for semen and urine.  Composed of 3 cylindrical masses: 2 corpora cavernosa, 1 corpus spongiosum (all erectile tissues).  Glans: Head of penis covered by the prepuce (foreskin).  The penis is supported by the fundiform and suspensory ligaments.  An erection is brought about by parasympathetic innervation leading to vasodilation of arterioles in erectile tissue.  Large amounts of blood enter the tissue into dilated blood sinuses.  Ejaculation is the powerful release of semen due to sympathetic stimulation. The bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus and superficial transverse perineal muscles contract to force the semen out. Female Reproductive System  Organs include: ovaries, uterine (fallopian) tubes (oviducts), the uterus, the vagina and external organs.  Ovaries: paired glands homologous to the testes. They produce gametes (mature into ova) and hormones (progesterone, estrogens, inhibin, relaxin).  They are supported by the broad ligament, ovarian ligament and suspensory ligament.  Histologically, ovaries consist of:  The germinal epithelium—covers the surface  The tunica albuginea—capsule of dense irregular connective tissue below the germinal epithelium  The ovarian cortex—below the tunica albuginea. Consists of ovarian follicles and stromal cells.  The ovarian medulla—connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves.  Ovarian follicles—contain oocytes in various stages of development, follicular cells and granulosa cells.  A mature (graafian) follicle is ready to rupture and expel the secondary oocyte.  A corpus luteum develops after ovulation when the empty follicle produces progesterone, estrogens, inhibin and relaxin.  Formation of gametes in the ovaries is oogenesis. It begins before a female is born with the process of meiosis.  When primordial germ cells migrate from the yolk sac to the ovaries during fetal development, they differentiate into oogonia.  Oogonia divide into germ cells, some of which become primary oocytes. Each is surrounded by follicular cells forming a primordial follicle.  Each month after puberty, FSH and LH stimulate the development of the primordial follicles. Only one usually reaches maturity. A few start to grow, developing into primary follicles.  In later stages of development, the primary oocyte is surrounded by several layers of cuboidal and low-columnar cells (granulosa cells).  The glycoprotein zona pellucida forms between the primary oocyte and the granulosa cells.  As maturation continues, the primary follicle develops into a secondary follicle.  The theca folliculi forms from stromal cells.  In a secondary follicle the theca differentiates into the theca interna and theca externa.  The innermost layer of granulosa cells becomes the corona radiata.  The secondary follicle becomes a mature (graafian) follicle.  While in the mature follicle, the diploid primary oocyte completes meiosis I producing a haploid secondary oocyte (with the majority of the cytoplasm) and a haploid first polar body.  At ovulation, both cells and the corona radiata enter the uterine tube. If sperm are present and fertilization takes place, the secondary oocyte continues into meiosis II.  An ovum and a second polar body form. The ovum becomes a zygote when it unites with the sperm.  Females have two uterine (fallopian) tubes (oviducts) that extend from the uterus.  The tubes are the pathway for the sperm to reach the ovum and for the secondary oocytes and fertilized ova to travel to the uterus.  The end of the tube is the infundibulum.  Fimbriae project from it.  The ampulla is the widest protion of the tube.  The uterine tubes have 3 layers: mucosa, muscularis and serosa.  The simple ciliated columnar epithelium of the mucosa contains cilia that move the fertilized ovum or secondary oocyte towards the uterus.  Peg cells in the tube secrete a fluid providing nourishment for the ovum.  The uterus is part of the pathway for sperm deposited in the vagina to reach the uterine tube.  It is the site of implantation of the fertilized ovum, development of the fetus during pregnancy and labor.  The top of the uterus is the fundus.  The central portion is the body.  The inferior extension into the vagina is the cervix.  The isthmus is between the body and the cervix.  The interior of the body is the uterine cavity.  The interior of the cervix is the cervical canal.  The opening of the canal into the uterus is the internal os.  The opening of the canal into the vagina is the external os.  Histologically, there are three layers to the uterus.  The perimetrium (serosa) is the outermost layer.  The middle layer is the myometrium consisting of three layers of smooth muscle.  The endometrium is the inner layer. Its stratum functionalis layer is shed each month during menstruation.  The stratum basalis layer is permanent and gives rise to a new stratum functionalis after each menstruation.  Secretory cells of the cervix produce cervical mucus which is chemically more hospitable to sperm during ovulation because it is less viscous and more alkaline.  It helps nourish sperm  It may aid in capacitation—functional changes in sperm that allow them to fertilize a secondary oocyte.  Nonpregnant females experience cyclical changes in the ovaries and uterus. Each cycle takes approximately one month.  The cycle involves oogenesis and preparation by the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum.  The ovarian cycle includes changes that occur during and after maturation of the oocyte.  The uterine cycle involves changes in the endometrium that prepare it for implantation of the developing embryo.  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus controls both the ovarian and uterine cycles.  Phases: The cycle generally ranges from 24–36 days. It is divided into 4 phases: Feedback is important in regulating hormonally controlled cycles.  The high levels of estrogens during the last part of the preovulatory phase have a positive feedback effect on cells secreting LH and GnRH thus bringing about ovulation.  There are many hormonal interactions between the ovarian and uterine cycles.  Menstrual, Preovulatory, Ovulation, & Postovulatory.


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