Week 7 Class Notes
Week 7 Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Friday February 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/15
Hist 352 Week 7 Lecture Notes The Sexual Revolution Feminism and the Gay Rights Movement Part 1 Ending Notes on Vietnam War 0 As number of soldiers increased number of people opposed to war increased 0 1969 52 in poll said they thought US had made a mistake in entering the war 0 Student activism was central to antiwar movement 0 Students for a Democratic Society founded by Tom Hayden 1960 was biggest student group protesting the war in the country 0 Began questioning America s role overseas 0 Colleges were centers of protest because it was a source of information to students 0 Students also saw how colleges played into the militaryindustrial complex 0 0 Protests Military was the biggest source of research funding for colleges Funding for weapons development research 0 People of very different backgrounds came together to criticize the war 0 Reasons for protest O O 0 Didn t want to be drafted Cost too much took money away from War on Poverty Women wanted to protect family andor loved ones from the war Pacifism Anger at government lies Conviction that war couldn t be won Belief that Violence against helpless populations undermined moral authority of the US o Radicalization and opposition to US Imperialism 0 View that Cold War rationale was arrogant and unfounded 0 Many thinkers like Noam Chomsky saw US as expanding an empire 0 1967 demonstration of around 500000 at the pentagon 0 When Nixon was elected he put antiwar activists on enemies list 0 Saw them as pampered children 0 Rioting outside the Democratic National Convention 0 Hundreds of student strikes at colleges 0 May 1970 4 students killed at Kent State by National Guard Institutional and Cultural Legacy of War 0 Freedom of Information Act 1966 strengthened in 1974 o Prompted by exposure of COINTELPRO federal program which infiltrated and spied on organizations like AIM Black Panther Party and Students for a Democratic Society 0 Allows Americans to write to government and find out what kind of information they have about them 0 War Powers Resolution 1973 0 US can only send soldiers overseas for 60 days without gaining Declaration of War from Congress 0 Congress never officially declared war in Vietnam 0 No longer consensus on the global exercise of American power 0 Today only small percentage of Americans feel like they can trust the government 0 1960s 75 of Americans believed the US was a representative democracy 0 Today only 20 believe the US is representative of the people 0 7075 believe only a small group of interests are represented by the government corporations police etc Sexual Revolution o Involved sexual orientation sexual behavior gender roles and questioning the family structure The SexGender Distinction o Distinction between social and biological facts 0 Sex is bodily anatomy 0 Gender is identity 0 Idea that gender roles are subject to change and are socially constructed 0 Has varied dramatically over time and culture 0 Gender can be and has been regulated by law and custom o Distinction between biological and social gender construction is the most important idea of second wave feminism Change 0 Gender roles and expectations began to shift 0 Married women couldn t establish credit or borrow money on their own 0 1962 23 of women surveyed believed men should make most of the important family decisions 0 Colleges and grad schools had very small quotas for women 0 Gender discrimination was legal and normal 0 Sex was added to Civil Rights Act 1964 to try to make it fail o Ended up as the first civil rights law to include women Sexual Experience and Orientation 0 Before 1965 married couples couldn t get birth control 0 Griswald vs Connecticut ruling allowed access to contraception for legally married couples in Connecticut 0 Before 1973 abortion was illegal in parts of the US 0 Eugenics Laws allowed the state to decide if someone was fit to be a parent 0 Forced sterilization for those not fit 0 Oregon s program lasted until 1983 0 Choices of body family and sexuality were political not personal 0 Cohabitation was considered living in sin and children born to unwed parents were called illegitimate Homosexuality 0 Legally punished 0 Considered a mental illness until 1973 0 Police raids on gay bars were very common 0 closeted living in an enclosed space where identity had to be concealed 0 Openly gay people couldn t work in government jobs be in military and were suspected as communists 0 Often exiled from families Part 2 Sexual Liberalism 0 Separating sex from reproduction 0 Sexual liberals believe it s good for parenthood to be a voluntary choice 0 People don t have to live in fear of unplanned pregnancies 0 Idea that motherhood shouldn t be mandatory Contraceptives o 1960 FDA approved the pill 0 Made it possible for people to separate sexual behavior from reproductive choices Sexual Science 0 Alfred Kinsey published reports on sexual behavior in 1948 and 1953 o Talked to 20000 men and women 0 Created scoring sheet of sexual experiences 0 Source of the statistic that 10 of the population is lgbtq o Controversial still debated today 0 Found gap between how people acted and how they talked about sexuality 0 People talked about the ideal of waiting for marriage but many didn t 0 Movement of sex into the classroom itself was part of the sexual revolution Paid Work 0 Labor market was sexsegregated 0 Women had clerical positions typists secretaries etc 0 50s and 60s married white womens participation in labor force began to increase 0 Many states used to have laws that women would lose jobs when they got married 0 New idea that men and women s lives can be similar Second Wave Feminism 0 Reproductive rights associated with second wave 0 Slogan the personal is political o Protesting the way that private choices were regulated o Pauli Murray was the first African American woman to be ordained as a priest was a link between feminism and the civil rights movement 0 Helped found National Organization of Women 0 Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique 0 Difference between liberal feminism focus on rights through legal system and radical feminism focus on liberation Equal Rights Amendment o Equality of rights shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account ofsex o Introduced 1923 0 Failed in 1982 3 states short of ratification 0 Still not part of the US Constitution o Phyllis Schla y opposed it because she didn t believe women s lives and choices should be similar to men 0 Based on fact that women have babies and men don t 0 God and nature made men and women different 0 Thought women were given special privileges that they would have to give up for equality 0 Controversy over the draft if ERA passed would women be subject to the draft Gay Rights Movement 0 Reasoning about sexuality came from racial rights movement 0 Stonewall riots outside of Stonewall Inn in 1969 o Seen as official beginning of gay liberation movement Reasoning to Race 0 Sexism and heteroseXism are systems of political economic and cultural power parallel to racism 0 Institutional not just a matter of personal prejudice 0 consciousness raising women formed groups to share stories about their lives 0 Allowed them to see problems as systematic not just individual 0 coming out was a movement that had political implications not just personal 0 Goals 0 Individual freedom 0 Assertion of collective pride and identity 0 Integration and inclusion 0 End to legal punishment and discrimination 0 Question of whether women and lgbtq people were minority groups 0 People who protested tended to dress very respectably to overturn stereotypes of perverts 0 First gay liberation march was in 1970 Before Stonewall Homophile organizations worked for legal recognition and equality and against stigma and invisibility 1951 the Mattachine Society in LA 1955 Daughters of Bilitis in San Francisco Gay communities could only exist in exile of family and mainstream communities What Does Equal Citizenship Mean Most prominent areas of equality today are marriage and the military In the 1960s protesters were more focused on removing discrimination States had made constitutional amendments defining marriage as heterosexual Currently 37 states and DC have overturned those amendments to allow marriage equality Still no federal civil rights law that includes sexual orientation Major question of Whether equality requires sameness
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