BIOL 2230 4/19 and 4/21
BIOL 2230 4/19 and 4/21 BIOL 2230
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Collins on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2230 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Anthony L Newsome in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Gas gangrene – death of soft tissue due to loss of blood supply • Clostridium perfringes • Anaerobic – CO2 + H2 produced à swelling à blood vessels shut • Occurs in deep wound infections, e.g. human and animal bites • Prevalent in military – leave wound open if possible • Treatment o Debridment – cut off dead tissue – O2 can now reach live tissue o Hyperbolic chamber – increase amount of O2 to saturate tissue with it Anthrax: Bacillus anthracis • Inhale – multiply in lungs • Aerobic, spore-‐forming – easy to grow and weaponize Black Plague – Yersinia pestis • Also causes bubonic plague – huge lymph nodes • Carried by rats, fleas Lyme disease: Borrelia burgdorferi • Deer ticks – bulls-‐eye rash • STARI – Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness Bacterial diseases of the digestive system • Ingestion of contaminated food or water • Fecal material gets into your mouth – fecal-‐oral route o 1 gram of fecal material contains 100 billion bacteria and is 40 -‐ 50% bacteria by weight Mouth • Streptococcus mutans – caries (cavities) – bacteria sticks to enamel • Periodontal disease – anaerobic bacteria Diseases of the intestinal tract • Infection vs intoxication – with intoxication, you ingest a toxin that has already pre-‐formed, and antibiotics don’t help • Dysentery o Diarrhea: condition of having 3 or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day o Dysentery: more serious; diarrhea + blood + mucus o The most common cause of infant mortality worldwide is thought to be dehydration from diarrhea • Gastroenteritis – inflammation of mucous membranes that line intestines o Enterotoxin: toxin that acts only on intestines • Staphylococcal food poisoning – Staphylococcus aureus o Rapid onset: 1-‐6 hours • Salmonella gastroenteritis o Onset: 1-‐12 days (bacteria multiply until they make you sick) § More difficult to identify the source of the sickness o Poultry • Typhoid fever – Salmonella typhi – severe diarrhea • Cholera – Vibrio cholerde o Lose 12-‐20 liters of fluid per day • Traveler’s diarrhea o Escherichia coli – gastroenteritis § Different strains in different regions § E. coli 0157 – enterohemorrhagic strain 2 • Can leave intestine and infect other organs • Carried by cows – ingested through rare meat • Clostridium perfringes – enterotoxin o Food poisoning • Listeriosis – Listeria monocytogenes o Stillbirth and disease in humans and animals o Usually mild and symptomless – but severe in very young, very old, immunocompromised people o Foodborne outbreaks – from variety of food and dairy products o Special – can grow relatively well at refrigerator temp, so number of bacteria increases during shelf life Bacterial diseases of urinary and reproductive systems Most reported STD: Neisseria gonorrhea (has to be reported to the health department) • Attach to mucosal cells – genitals, eyes, oral • More harmful to women • PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) – 30-‐40% of cases • Untreated à systemic – e.g. neonatal ophthalmic gonorrhea • Severity depends on strain Syphilis – Treponema palladium (an STD) • Initial infection à chancre sore à if not treated, can cross placenta à congenital syphilis • Once infected, body may eradicate or it could invade the brain • Chancre may heal but you’re still infected Chlamydia trachomatis (STD) – can be passed to newborns Trichomonas vaginalis – protozoan 3 • 6-‐10-‐20 million people are infected – most common STD in the U.S. • Not highly virulent • Detect through PAP smear Viruses Reproduce only within cells – can’t grow on agar plate • No metabolism outside walls • Nucleic acid and protein coat, few if any of own enzymes o Use cell’s enzymes – very difficult to selectively treat Refer to by genus and species and as a viral agent – not a viral cell Infection usually kills the host cell • Must attach to protein (receptor) Cultivate or grow • On animal, tissue culture, live egg – not agar plates • Vaccines are produced this way Too small to be seen with a microscope – can only see effects Viral diseases of the skin Warts • Caused by papillomavirus – contagious • As you get older you tend to be more immune • Can become very serious if you’re immunodeficient Smallpox – Variola virus • Last case was in 1977 – global effort to eradicate it • 30% mortality rate • Cowpox – very similar – milkmaids often infected, thus becoming immune to smallpox 4 • Edward Jenner: gave people cowpox to vaccinate them o Smallpox vaccine (made with cowpox) can kill you • After 9/11: breakup of Soviet Union – said they had vials of smallpox o Could be weaponized – no one is vaccinated anymore • Transmitted by respiratory route • Viremia – presence of virus in the blood • Circular lesion – bursts – releases viruses into the air Chicken pox – Varicella zoster • Respiratory route à viremia à encephalitis • Viremia also affects skin à vesicular (fluid-‐filled) lesion • Infects nerve endings near surface of skin (peripheral nerve ganglion) • Latent infection – can remain in host for a long time without apparent symptoms • Immunocompromised people – virus multiplies in nerves: shingles • Varicella vaccine – not 100% effective o Possibly higher risk for shingles later Measles – Rubeola • Highly contagious • Respiratory route – blindness, hearing loss • Vaccine was once thought to cause blindness (not true) • Rubella – German measles o MMR vaccine: measles, mumps, and rubella o More mild and often undetected o Don’t get Rubella vaccine if pregnant o 30% can get congenital rubella syndrome 5 o crosses placenta in first trimester Herpes simplex type I – cold sores • 90% of people are infected, 15% produce recurring cold sores • Affect mucus membranes on face • Exists as latent virus • Herpetic keratitis – eye infection Herpes simplex type II – genital herpes (STD) • Both types can cause encephalitis (infection of the brain) – very rare Viral infections in children • Do not give aspirin when child has a virus – e.g. flu, common cold • Reyes syndrome: edema (fluid) in brain o Very rare Viral disease of the central nervous system Polio virus – poliomyelitis • Still prevalent in developing countries • Ingest virus through contaminated food and water • Multiplies in small intestine à viremia à CNS à paralysis (1%) – most of the time asymptomatic • 1950s: vaccine – before, would have to shut down schools during polio outbreaks Rabies virus – fatal • Encephalitis – usually from an animal bite • Unique in that incubation period is long enough to allow immunity from post-‐exposure vaccination (i.e. you can be vaccinated after bitten) • Multiplies in muscles initially 6 • In system for days or months before becoming symptomatic à CNS à encephalitis • Bites on face and hands are more concerning because they have more nerve endings – faster entry to CNS 7
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