Social Learning Paradigm
Social Learning Paradigm CJ 300
Popular in Survey of Criminology Theories
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Hendrixson on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 300 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Diana Dolliver in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 317 views. For similar materials see Survey of Criminology Theories in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
Cl 300 Lecture Notes The Social Learning Paradigm Differential Association and Social Learning Theory 0 Setting the stage 0 Broad social behavioristic approach in social science Work of Bandura 19605 and 19705 and other psychologists 0 Interaction between cognitive behavioral and environmental determinants o Edwin Sutherland 1947 Robert Burgess and Ronald Akers 1966 Akers 19731979 But before we get there 0 Crime is not caused by personality or biology but rather by social constructs and environmental factors Back to the Classical School 0 Criminals do not differ from anyone else because behavior is learned 0 Process of learning behaviors in general can explain why crime occurs Sutherland 0 Father of this paradigm 0 Most important criminologist if the 20th century Professor of Sociology Studied at University of Chicago School of Criminology 0 Was in uenced by MichaelAdler report in 1933 3 conclusions Chicago School of Criminology 0 Differential Association Theory Stems from ideas of differential social organization 0 Differential Association Theory DATO 0 Communities can be differentiated buy the composition of criminal and noncriminal association What makes neighborhoods different from others 0 Principles of Criminology 4 editions 182410947 0 9 propositions of DAT Criminal behavior is learned How do we learn these behaviors Through communication with others What is speci cally learned 0 De nitions A person becomes delinquent when there in excess of de nitions of crime techniques This means by which we all learn is the same for all behaviors Modalities of association 0 Priority duration intensity 0 For DAT Learning is NOT restricted to the process of imitation Micro individuallevel cause of crime Differentialassociation 0 Individual learning processes and association Cl 300 Lecture Notes Delinquents have delinquent peers Macro societallevel cause of crime 0 Culture con ict 0 Some cultures learn more criminal de nitions 0 Researching DAT Best predictor of crime that have in criminology is direction of causality Do people become delinquent BECAUSE they make friend with delinquents Or vice versa Unresolved Adolescents typically commit offenses of groups 0 24 people per group quotAcquiring definitionsquot Attitude transference 0 But is it attitudes or behavior that is being transferred or learned from person to person Behavior trumps attitude 0 What does the research how Imitation behavioral and attitude 0 This is where Social Learning Theory come sin Transference combination of all three Does Sutherland focus ONLY on peers friends a No According to DAT what can we do to reduce crime 0 Limit exposure to delinquent association 0 Social Learning Theory SLT o Burgess and Akers 1966 Wanted to make DAT better 0 Originally redesigned Sutherland39s theory Differential AssociationReinforcement Theory 81966 Differential reinforcement Operant behavior 0 Renamed the theory 39Social Learning Theoryquot in 1973 Got rid of Burgess Doesn t compete with DAT for territory 0 Uses it as an enhancement 0 Primary deviance 1St time you commit a crime 0 Secondary deviance 2 or more times you commit the same crime 0 Tries to explain both engagement and desistance in criminal behavior 0 Assumes the same learning process produces BOTH conforming and deviant behavior The word quotlearningquot doesn tjust mean learning but performance is learned 0 Crime can be explained based on how an individual interacts with their social environment 0 Major concepts C 300 Lecture Notes Di erentialassociation How are you exposed to socially normative de nitions 0 By the people we are surrounded by 0 Favorable and unfavorable to illegal behavior 0 Provides the main social context 0 Primary group 0 Family friends 0 Secondary group 0 Mass media classmates coworkers etc o A person can interact with other people in two ways 0 lnteractional dimension Direct 0 Primary group Indirect Secondary group 0 Normative dimension Competing norms De nitions 0 A person39s own attitudes or meaning we attach to a given behavior 0 De nitions can be 0 General or speci c General 0 De ne and adjust speci c Speci c Acting out general Society39s normal and values at Marco level 0 Positive neutralizing or negative Positive Procriminal behavior Nega ve Noncriminal behavior Neutralizing Slide we get when we go from negative to positive Excuses and justi cation If you identify a negative behavior you are more or less likely to commit the crime 0 Less likely Differential reinforcement The hedonism o Refers to the balance of rewards and punishments for the behavior Anticipated Primary group Actual Secondary group CI 300 Lecture Notes 0 Important concepts 0 Positive and negative reinforcement 0 Social reinforcement In uenced by primary group 0 Selfreinforcement Personal control Imitation Acting out the behavior after observing that behavior is someone else 0 When is imitating most important 0 When learning something new for the rst time 0 Our primary group is the most important imitate primary group most 0 BUT more recent research has shown that it may not necessarily be our primary group that has the most in uence We imitation our secondary group more than our primary group 0 Learning is dynamic Hedonism learning and imitation along with the social context are what produces the initial criminal act 0 Primary deviance What determines if the act will be repeated or not 0 Feedback secondary deviance Our actions build momentum for future actions whether good or bad Is the focus on formal legal laws 0 No deviant behavior in general Mostly a micro level theory BUT Akers developed a macrolevel take on the theory 0 Social structure and social learning SSSSL model The SSSL model suggest that the social structure can in uence the individual 0 SSSL and Individual learning What is quotsocial structurequot 4 dimensions of SSSL that can be integrated with social learning 0 Organization of society 0 Our individual place in the social structure 0 Structural variables 0 Our individual place in our social groups Problems 0 Other criticisms of SLT Spurious relationship between delinquents and peers Testability The theory is not linear How can we operationalize an internalized process Cl 300 Lecture Notes Where is opportunity 0 Main ndings and implications of SLT Primary contact groups are very important in terms of 0 Parents friends gangs Societallevel factors are very in uential in terms of 0 Neighborhood characteristics Policies Prosocia peer groups 0 Group therapy 0 The quotteaching familyquot model 0 GREAT program 0 Drugrelated rehabilitation programs
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