Psychology 1410 - Social Psychology
Psychology 1410 - Social Psychology Psy-1410-007
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Ch. 13 Social Psychology Negative Aspects of Groups and Social Influence Example: Lynch Mobs Deindividualization o A state in which people in a group can feel anonymous and unidentifiable and therefore feel less concerned with what others think of their behavior Diffusion of Responsibility o The reduction of personal responsibility of each group member to act appropriately o The bystander effect – “somebody else will help, so I don’t have to” Is there safety in numbers? Kitty Genovese (1935-1964) o Was walking home one night o Was attacked and stabbed twice by a man o She called out for help, and several neighbors heard her, one of which yelled out “let that girl alone!” o Attacker fled, but then came back and stabbed her several more times, where Kitty then died o Interviewer came and talked to bystander neighbors (approx. 12 people), and they all said that they figured someone else would have helped her Latane and Rodin (1969) o Experiments to study the bystander effect for when the bystander is alone and when they’re in groups Alone = 70% helped With another person who doesn’t help = 7% helped Darley and Latane (1968) Smoke-filled Room Study o Smoke starts to fill the room in which the participate is in, they go investigate, and then calmly leave the area o Smoke fills the room with the participant along with other people, and when no one else says anything, the participant just sits there and doesn’t leave o People are prone to not act when they should act when in groups Do people work harder when they work in groups or when they work alone? o Social Loafing – riding on other people’s hard work without doing anything yourself A tendency to work less hard when group performance is measured Example: a large group goes out to dinner, people are prone to leave a smaller tip for their server than they would if they were in a smaller group or alone Ordinary people can be transformed by social psychological processes o But not as to excuse someone from unforgivable behavior, such as lynch mobs “Nothing is easier than to denounce the evildoer; nothing is more difficult than to understand him,” – Dostoevsky Traditional Individualistic View Who is responsible? Who caused it? Who gets the blame? Who gets credit? Examples: o Law – culpability o Medicine – disease o Religion – sin Instead, consider: o Social influences o Situational conditions Conformity Solomon Asch (1907-1996) o First to study conformity o In 74% of the cases, the participants conformed to the pressure of the group Factors the increase the likelihood of conformity o Group size o Unanimous groups o Authority figure Group Think o Conformity in the group results in an irrational decision making o Predictors of group think Group cohesiveness – tightly connected, great respect for each other Same political party, same religious affiliation, etc. Homogeneity of members – all the same Insulation of group Strong in-group vs. out-group External threats Stress o Preventing group think Assign “devil’s advocate: or “critical evaluator” Leaders should absent themselves Use independent groups Use outside experts Explore alternatives Zimbardio’s Stanford Prison Experiment Students were randomly assigned to roles: o “Inmates” vs. “officers” o They took up their roles so seriously, they actually became them “inmates” suffered from mental breakdowns “officers/guards” would mentally and psychically abuse inmates – something they would never do otherwise Stanley Milgram Studied how/why the Holocaust could have ever happened After WWII, when asked why some former Nazis participated in running concentration camps, they typically said: “Because I was told/I was following orders.” Obedience to Authority o The shock experiment o Findings: 65% of participants continued to the end of the experiment o “With numbing regularity, good people were seen to knuckle under the demands of authority and perform actions that were callous and severe” – Milgram Stability of findings across time and place? o Researchers tried to replicate the findings across the country and internationally US Italy South Africa Germany Australia Jordan Spain India o 25 studies conducted between 1963-1965 o Results have been consistent Positive Aspects of Social Influence Two heads are better than one o When problem solving and social loafing is absent Social facilitation o Conformity in a positive manner o Example: child is having behavioral issues; place the child in a social setting for him to see other children doing what they are supposed to be doing; the difficult child conforms and does the pro-social activity Team work o Industrial organization psychology – corporate settings o Team mates = connectivity without problematic deindividualization Sports teams Social Norms o Sometimes we HAVE to conform to society o Example: we all must drive the same way on the highway Design situational conditions that facilitate positive behavior o Analysis of situational conditions o Schools use this Slippery Slope of Evil –Zimbardo’s 7 social processes: Mindlessly taking the first small step Dehumanization of others The deindividualization of self (Anonymity) Diffusion of personal responsibility Blind obedience to authority Uncritical conformity to group norms Passive tolerance of evil through inaction, or indifference “Heroism the Antidote to Evil” – Zimbardo Ordinary people who do ordinary extraordinary deeds Example: Wesley Autrey: saved a man who had a seizure and fell onto a subway train track – Autrey jumped on the track and got on top of the man while a train passed over the top of them – saved the man’s life Social Psych Attributes How we think of ourselves in relationship to others? How do we explain the causes of behavior? Fundamental attribution hypothesis o Internal vs. external/situational o Example: you see a student asleep in class and think “what a slacker.” When YOU fall asleep in class, you wake up and think “I’ve just had a lot going on in my life, I was working late, I didn’t get any sleep late night….” o The tendency to attribute other people’s behavior to internal factors o Tends to be self-serving bias Example: Getting an F: “the teacher is bad,” “I was too busy this semester” – external and situational factors Getting an A: “I am a genius,” “I did so good” – internal and dispositional factors Stable (unchangeable) vs. Unstable (temporary) o Healthy person: something bad happens, and they realize that this bad feeling is only temporary o Unhealthy/depressed person: something bad happens, they think things will always be bad in their life Just-world Hypothesis o The belief that the world is just and people get what they deserve o Examples: blaming the victim Attitudes and Persuasion Attitudes o Foot-in-the-door technique It’s better to get your “foot in the door” first before you ask someone outright to do something Create a relationship in order for you to comply Example: after graduation, MTSU will call you and ask how you are doing, what your college experience was like, etc. then they will start asking for donations to the school o Door-in-the-face technique Going to the extreme and asking something totally unreasonable, so that your goal question doesn’t seem so bad or far-fetched o Modeling Example: parents want kids to read more- kids see Dora reading on TV, makes them want to read o Lowballing Technique Example: car shopping Leon Festinger (1919-1989) Cognitive dissonance o The discomfort that results from inconstancies between thought and behavior Will result in a person changing either their thought or changing their behavior to relieve the friction When feelings and facts are in opposition, people will find or invent a way to reconcile them Boring tasks experiment o When people don’t have justification for doing something they don’t like, they will create a justification Love and Attraction What is love? o Based on Sternberg’s Triangle of Love o 3 components: Intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment o Intimacy – the feeling of closeness Sharing info, secret, that you don’t share with anyone else o Passion – sexual attraction and the desire for sexual intimacy (quick to fade) o Decision/commitment – the decision that one is “in love” The willingness to label it as such, and a commitment to maintain that relationship Can be unspoken There are different types of love o Liking intimacy o Compassionate love Commitment and intimacy o Infatuated love passion o Empty love Commitment o Romantic love Intimacy and passion o Fatuous love Commitment and passion o Consummate Love All three
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