Bio 1 Week of 2/16/15 Notes
Bio 1 Week of 2/16/15 Notes BIOSC 0150
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Poston on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOSC 0150 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Kaufman/McGreevy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
Foundations of Biology Week of 21615 Notes Monday Citric Acid Cycle cont The oxidation of citrate reduces 3 NAD to 3 NADH and 1 FAD to 1 FADH2 and generates 1 ATP Since 2 pyruvate molecules go through this process double the numbers for the total products of the Citric Acid Cycle 0 6 NADH 2 FADH2 So what do we have so far from stages 13 of Cellular Respiration 4 ATP 0 10 NADH 2 FADH2 We are now ready for the nal stage the Electron Transport Chain ETC It s important to keep in mind that much of the energy converted from glucose is being stored in the electrons transferred to NADH and FADH2 they are important In the membrane of the mitochondria there are protein complexes that make up a system of picking up the electrons from the electron carriers It looks like this The electron transport chain occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion 39quot membranes of cristae PROCESS ELEBTRON TRANSPORT EHAIM W H lntermembrane H H A I39 39 7 n i 1 k L39 quot 39 W51quot if 7 t r i new g Membrane ll Var rail I 11 395 like i N Mini I Ti iii39n39igl VE II l En l l Mitochondrial 7 matrix NADH H FADH2 2equot 2H 12 02 H o 2 Complex 7 N quotComplexlll r r Compilexlll Complex What goes in What comes out The complexes are arranged in order of increasing electronegativity so each one is able to pick up more electrons than the previous As the electron carriers drop off their electrons hydrogen protons are being pumped into the intermembrane space Not pictured is ATP synthase which is the last stop of the ETC The hydrogen ions will enter ATP synthase causing it to rotate quotfueling itquot and ATP is generated in bulk Aso note from the picture NADH starts at Complex 1 and FADH2 starts at Complex 2 quotQquot stands for quinone an electron carrier that transfers the electrons between complexes The ETC yields the largest amount of ATP out of all the stages of Cellular Respiration but the speci c amount varies from organism to organism This process works through oxidative phosphorylation meaning that it cannot operate with oxygen So what happens if oxygen isn t present Fermentation involves only glycolysis There are two types Lactic Acid fermentation when pyruvate becomes lactate When an athlete is exercising the cell may not be getting enough oxygen to continue cellular respiration So this kind fermentation occurs which results in a build up of lactic acid causing muscles to cramp and be sore Ethanol fermentation when pyruvate becomes acetyl aldehyde and then ethanol this does not occur in humans but is common in the process of making beer and wine Catabolism breaking down a substance in the case of cellular respiration glucose Anabolism building up a substance in photosynthesis sugar Wednesday Photosynthesis Where does it take place Leaves 0 In which organelle does it take place Chloroplasts o What is the source of oxygen Water Photosynthesis can be summed up by this equation C02 Water Sunlight Sugar glucose Oxygen Water Light a form of electromagnetic radiation characterized by its wavelength which is inversely proportional to its energy content The shorter the wavelength the higher its energy Purple Short D Red Light long low E Light energy is in the form of photons When electrons absorb light the electrons become quotexcitedquot and are moved to a higher energy level Remember an electron s energy is characterized by its distance from the nucleus Mesophyll cells contain chloroplasts where photosynthesis will occur Stroma water based uid around chloroplast Thylakoid membrane with uid inside found within chloroplasts Pigments found inside chloroplast They absorb only certain wavelengths of light if not absorbed the light will be re ected or transmitted which we perceive as color Ex Pigments in leaves do not absorb green wavelengths but re ect it instead That is why leaves and stems are green Photosynthesis involves 2 types of reactions Lightdependent reaction aka the photo stage located in the thylakoid membrane Lightindependent reaction aka the synthesis stage occurs in the Calvin Cycle found in the stroma LightDependent There is photosystem 1 and photosystem 2 but photosystem 2 comes rst in the process it was discovered second Sometimes only one system is involved but when both are it is called a Z Scheme Photon Photosystemquot PhOtO SYStEml NADP Lallil V 39 39 39 39 Lquot l iquot quot l 39 ri39 u i39 r Photon r 6 l E is l j 1 ll r 1 H I 71 A I quotrquot I if a fll39 lirquotiv quotl I 1 J 1 1 A a I J Thylakoid 39 t 7 l u space 7 7 Electron transport chain 7 l 7 Provides energy for synthesis at i0 2 by chemiosmosis Thylakoid membrane 2 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education lnc Publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings All rights reserved A Z Scheme is characterized by production of both ATP and NADPH Friday If only Photosystem 1 is involved it is called Cyclic Electron Transport Here lots of ATP needs to be made and there must be plenty of NADPH around no oxygen is produced Aka the Calvin Cycle lightindependent 1 Fixation 3 RuBP 3 C02 I 6 3PGA Fixes carbon by combining 3 molecules of RuBP and 3 C02 0 Slow and inefficient process but the enzyme in charge is the only one for the job rubisco 2 Reduction 6 3PGA 6 ATP 6 NADPH l 5 G3P to move to step 3 AND 1 G3P to form glucose 0 Uses enegy to reduce the 3 carbon molecules made in step 1 to G3P 3 Regeneration 5 G3P 3 ATP l 3 RuBP starts cycle over again 0 Uses 5 out of 6 G3P molecules with more ATP to regenerate the 3 RuBP that went into Step 1 0 Without this step the process would not be a cycle Leaves can regulate the rate of the Calvin Cycle by controlling C02 passage through gates called stomata A stoma is a pore on the leaf s surface Different plants do this process in different ways C4 Metabolism plants regulate through spatial regulation which is the physical separation of rubisco and air Here bundlesheath cells are the only cells that contain rubisco CAM plants use C4 cycle similarly but do not physically separate C02 is stored at night and used during the day This is called temporal regulation
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