History Notes, Week 14 Total war taken to the limit
History Notes, Week 14 Total war taken to the limit HIS 121
Popular in United States History 1914-1945
Popular in History
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 121 at University of Kentucky taught by Lacey Sparks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see United States History 1914-1945 in History at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
History Week 14 Lecture: Total War taken to the limit: Atomic Bomb Development and use as culmination of Total War Required scientific and economic strengths Atomic bomb would render war impossible Believed had no choice but to control it Nuclear fission discovered 1939 Nuclear Physics 1. Discovery of atoms a. Fascination of radiation led to discovery that all things are made up of atoms b. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity 1905 e=mc^2 2. Scientists a. Many were Jewish because scientists fled to Britain and US b. Making crucial contributions c. Leo Szilard d. Enricho Fermi – nuclear chain reaction possible Lisa Meitner and Otto Hahn o Two German scientists first to recognize nuclear fission in uranium o Uranium atom hit by “primary neutron” splits, giving off energy and more neutrons Origin of Atom bomb project o Leo Szilard convinced Einstein to sign letter addressed to Roosevelt to ask to begin Project E British shared project becoming Manhattan project o British did not have funds o Franklin Roosevelt authorized Manhattan project o Secrecy Germans, Russians, and Japanese realized atomic bomb is feasible (never made a facility) German began 1945 – Vemark heavy-water plant Allies kept watch- several attempt to destroy, succeeding 1949 First nuclear reactor o 1942 o Prove possible to start and control nuclear reaction o University of Chicago Robert Oppenheimer o Director of the project Handed to military leader General Leslie Groves They often argued over who knows about what part of project Had to be completed in many parts of country Met at Los Alamos, New Mexico, confirmed, but exciting Not supposed to tell wives Harold Urey, Noble Prize winner- separating Uranium isotopes 3 different technologies to create U-238 Tennessee Women working in consoles in Oak Ridge Difficulty recruiting in Washington “Fat Man” produced Kept such a secret, many people did not know what “gadget” was until dropped on Hiroshima Klaus Fuchs- spy for Soviet Union “Brighter than 1000 suns” describe 1 nuclear explosion in “Trinity” test in New Mexico 1945 Ground Zero after produced glass due to heat Japan refused surrender forcing use of Atomic Bomb End project was Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nature of warfare changed forever Conclusion 1. All countries had scientific information 2. Only US had all resources 3. Possibility of destroying societies even worlds 4. Total war is not impossible 5. Wars have taken new form
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