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Week 15 Lecture Notes

by: Maddie Butkus

Week 15 Lecture Notes Psys 100

Marketplace > Ball State University > Psychlogy > Psys 100 > Week 15 Lecture Notes
Maddie Butkus
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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture notes from 4-19 and 4-21 - An essay question is in these notes!
Intro to Psychological Science
Dr. Paul Biner
Class Notes
PSYS100, Biner
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
▯ ESSAY QUESTION HERE ▯ ▯ Humanistic Approach  Carl Rogers Theory of Personality  Adopted an optimistic view of humans  Argued that humans are inherently good, helpful, non- deceitful and understanding of one another. o A view of completely opposite of Freud  Personality is said to develop from the innate desire to better ourselves and achieve self-fulfillment (or self-actualization)  The theory is structured around…. o Self: perceptions we have of ourselves and our relationship to others and the environment. o Ideal Self: Perceptions of the self we would like to be or capable of being. o Rogers believed that how happy we are in life depends on how close the self is to ideal self. We are happy and content when the two converge. We are unhappy and dissatisfied when the two are discrepant. As personality develops: Self -> ideal self There are no stages of personality development it is a continuous process. ▯ Cognitive/Social-Learning Approach These theorists believe that our personalities are determined by our environment influences They emphasize external shaping Good example: “Behavioral approach” Personality = the composite of all our behaviors/attitudes that have been acquired through o Classical conditioning o Operant Conditioning o Observational Learning  Behavioral theorists believe that personality can be changed (unlike the psychoanalytic and trait theories) ▯ ▯ Psychological Disorders and Therapy Ch. 15 & 16  Abnormal Psychology: the area of psychology concerned with the study and treatment of psychological disorders.  A person is said to have a psychological disorder if his/her behavior is: o Atypical o Disturbing to others o Maladaptive o Irrational  Antisocial personality disorder (sociopath or psychopathic personality) o Classified as a personality disorder o It is this disorder that is most dangerous to all of us o Approximately 5% of the population is psychopathic to one degree of another (1 out of 20 people) o Characteristics of Antisocial Individual  Display little/no guilt, anxiety of remorse (don’t feel bad about crimes they commit)  Extremely power-oriented  Incapable of being loyal  Disregard societal/moral rules  Extremely selfish and arrogant  Get frustrated easily  Pathological (obsessive) liars  Get bored and restless easily  Usually well spoken/charming (used this to trick their victim)  Above average IQ’s  Often physically attractive  Social relationships dissolve quickly (they lose every friend they make)  Punishment (social or otherwise) does not appear to affect their behavior. They do not seem to learn from past experiences  Diagnostic Classification Categories of Psychopaths o Primary psychopaths  No feelings of anxiety and guilt whatsoever (crimes more severe) o Secondary psychopaths  Some tendencies toward feelings of guilt and anxiety (crimes less severe)  Theories attempting to explain what causes Antisocial personality Disorder o Psychoanalytical Approach  Proposes that an underdeveloped or faulty superego is responsible for the disorder  Id goes unchecked (murder and rape)  No feelings of guilt  And the faulty superego is due to the failure of parents or adequate role models to teach psychopaths good from bad  Research shows that the majority of psychopaths were, in fact, never disciplined as children o Trait Approach  Hans Eyesnk  Proposes that two personality traits combine to determine that antisocial personality  That is, psychopaths tend to be  Low on neuroticism  High on extraversion  Neuroticism: degree to which a personal is easily aroused  Psychopaths are proposed to be low on this trait as they are always aroused  Extroversion: degree to which a person is impulsive and sociable  Psychopaths are proposed to be high on this trait as they are extremely impulsive and highly sociable  The trait approach argues that people are born with these traits o Physiological Approach  Proposes that the disorder is due to an abnormality in the central nervous system (CNS).  Interestingly, many psychopaths have EEG patterns similar to very young children.  30-50% have the brain waves of a typical two- year old  Recent research indicates that this may be due to an underdeveloped amygdala (brain structure that controls our emotions) o There is NO therapeutic cure for the disorder!  Diet therapies, behavioral therapies, drug therapies have all been unsuccessful in treating antisocial personality disorder o 1950s the medical community reported that they had found a cure for the antisocial personality  Lobotomy  Lobotomies basically involved drilling holes in the skull of the patient and surgically destroying the frontal-lobe portions of cortex. o Psychological Disorders – videos  Interviews with psychopaths  Kemper  Bundy  These are extreme cases of psychopathic personalities Psychological Disorders – Depression  Depression: known as the “common cold” of psychological disorders  How prevalent is depression? o Data shows that as many as 25% of women and 15% of men are clinically depressed at this very moment. o The problem is that depression is almost always accompanied by suicidal and self-destructive tendencies. o So, depression is the most dangerous disorder not to other people, but to those who have it.  Biological Predisposition o Genetics play a significant role in depression o Data show clearly that depression runs in families  Stressful Life Events o Loss of a loved one o Romantic relationship ending o Being socially excluded o Being overworked/overwhelmed o Failure at a major life goal (college degree/marriage) o Traumatic life experiences  Depression o Feelings of complete worthlessness/hopelessness o Believing you are “nothing” o Making plans to end the “pain” of living o Suicide become a pleasant, wishful, and realistic option  Major Symptoms of Depression o Sitting around and stewing on problems (just think) o Difficulty concentrating/making decisions o Insomnia or lethargy o Favorite activates become boring (not interesting in the same things) o Sex becomes unappealing o Weight loss (not weight gain) o Loss of energy/feeling “slow” o Feel hopelessness and utter loss of control (feel alone) o Headaches, muscle pain, bowl/stomach problems  If you have three or more symptoms seek treatment immediately  Depressed people kill themselves o 75% of all people committing suicide are clinically depressed o so, it is very important to treat the disorder before suicide occurs o and, for 90% of all people who become depressed, the depression simply goes away within 4 to 6 weeks  Treatment for depression is keeping people alive until their depression lifts o If the symptoms last longer that 4 to 6 weeks, the disorder is then considered “clinical” or “major depression” o A very serious condition o Suicidal thoughts become an obsession o Often accompanied by psychotic symptoms  Hallucinations  Delusions  Depressive stupors o A second possibility is that the depression lifts… and the individual rebounds to the opposite emotional extreme. o That is, the patient becomes hyperactive, happy, peppy and talkative (a state called “mania”) o For most, the manic symptoms stop entirely after another 4-6 weeks o Unfortunately, a very small percentage of patients will experience continued cycles of mania and depression (for sometimes years)  “bipolar disorder” o In general, anti-depressant drugs are very effective in treating depression, major depression and bipolar disorder. o All enhance levels of neurotransmitter serotonin  Luvox  Prozac  Celexa  Zoloft o When these drugs fail to work then next treatment of choice is electro conclusive therapy (ECT)  Over 100,000 people receive ECT (sometimes referred to as “shock therapy”) every year in U.S. hospitals  Why?  Because ECT works


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