New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 14

by: Emma Notetaker

Week 14 NSCI 4510

Emma Notetaker
GPA 3.975

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes from lectures of week 14
Biological Psychology
Dr. Colombo
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biological Psychology

Popular in Neuroscience

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NSCI 4510 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Colombo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Neuroscience at Tulane University.


Reviews for Week 14


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/21/16
Tuesday, April 19, 2016 Week 14 Research - language • dyslexic: connectivity issues • tractography study in dyslexia: neuroanatomic correlates of orthographic, phonological and speech processing irregular words are cognitively processed more slowly • • orthographic: written word • phonological: heard word • indirect: • grapheme - phoneme conversion root • have to cognitively process - think more about rules direct lexical root: for more frequent words (learned associations) • • no real cognitive processing (simply association) • neural roots associated with reading: • dorsal root: temporoparietal • sounds (phonological awareness) • ventral root: occipito-temporal grapheme, orthography (written words) • • both areas show decreased activity in dyslexics vs. regular readers • arcuate fasciculus: connects left temporal parietal and left inferior frontal gyrus • connects Broca’s and Wernicke’s • assumed that left arcuate involved in dyslexia • hypothesis: difference in left arcuate fasciculus in dyslexics • • possible differences in left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus • may connect left ventral occipitotemporal (new possible reading area) • difference between areas involved in phonological (word sounds) and orthographic (visual) components of dyslexia • difference between radial and axial diffusion (what is the nature of this difference?) differences in speed of conduction and processing • • structural MRI technique showing CONNECTIONS • allows reconstruction and assessment of white matter tracts (connecting brain areas) • fractional anisotropy gives high resolution method of studying fiber systems and connectivity/circuitry • doesn’t measure connections computer reconstruction of connectivity based on probability • • anisotropy: does not diffuse equally in all directions • measuring diffusion of water inside the axons • water is constrained - goes along a specific path • fractional anisotropy is scalar value from 0-1, describing degree of anisotropy • 0: totally isotropic 1: diffusion occurs ONLY on one axis, fully restricted in all other directions • • computer model based on the levels of anisotropy • reflects density, axonal diameter and myelination • can measure axon 2 ways • radial diffusivity: related to myelination 1 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • diffusion down the length of the axon: tells more about the axon itself • study: 20 dyslexics and 20 regular adults normal range of non-verbal IQ • • dyslexic readers had issues with word reading, pseudo-word reading and spelling • tested phoneme awareness • phoneme deletion task: shown non-word and asked to delete one of the phonemes (ex: norf —> nor) • spoonerisms: swap initial phonemes of 2 words tested speech-in-noise • • constant background noise; asked to identify particular words in different decibels • finds threshold of detection of word against noise • orthographic processing • words presented really quickly, asked if it was spelled correctly or incorrectly • correlational study: measuring both brain and behavior in two groups, seeing if there are relationships • results: • dyslexics showed decreased fractional anisotropy in overall left arcuate (between posterior temporal and frontal) • more isotropic • decrease in RADIAL diffusivity, no difference in axial diffusivity from this, we conclude that changes NOT due to changes in the axon, but issues • with myelination of neurons • the neurons themselves are the same • explained by differences in DIRECT connection in arcuate fasciculus (no significant anterior/posterior differences) • no differences in right arcuate fasciculus • no group differences in left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus • left arcuate fasciculus DIRECT involved in phoneme awareness and speech perception • area that explained most of the group differences • phonological processing related to the size of the left arcuate fasciculus • nothing to do with orthography • left inferior fronto-temporal fasciculus correlated with orthography (no group differences) • found in correlational study • nothing to do with phoneme awareness • making orthographic decisions about words related to thickness of inferior fronto- occipital fasciculus • in dyslexic readers, likely difference in both phonological and orthographic processing • ventral root processes orthographic properties • dorsal root (with arcuate) more related to phoneme awareness • double dissociation between orthography and phonemic processing • conclusion—> dyslexia associated with differences in: • processing (behavior) • phonological processing • orthographic processing • brain regions • dorsal root - left arcuate fasciculus (involved in phonological processing) • group difference • correlational differences in left inferior fronto-occipital 2 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 Review less brain activity as a result of priming • • rat hippocampal damage - early findings (inconclusive) • normal acquisition (or better) of regular operant conditioning tests in lesioned rats • inconclusive information with spatial reasoning • place theory of hippocampal function: hippocampus needed for spatial memory • evidence: animals trained in water maze if lesion to hippocampus, couldn’t do as well • • place cells in hippocampus - when in a specific place, these cells fire • reference memory task • hippocampus NOT JUST involved in spatial memory • experiment: different inserts with different textures (NON-SPATIAL task) • —> new theory: hippocampus necessary for working memory, not reference memory • inferential reasoning task: • hippocampal lesions impair inferential reasoning (tests for transitivity) • y maze experiments: • 1. simultaneous visual discrimination: white arm and black arm seen at the same time • food always in same colored arm • 2. concurrent visual discrimination: 2 white arms in one trial, 2 black arms in the other • had to discriminate white/black, but never seen at the same time • rule: see white arm, turn right…see black arm, turn left • hippocampal lesion ONLY IMPAIRS #2 • in summary: hippocampus • link experiences into relational representation • supports inferential expression of indirect associations • 3 memory systems • hippocampus • place tasks • declarative memory • striatum • response tasks • procedural memory • habit • amygdala • emotional memory • radial arm maze tasks: each one impaired selectively by lesion to one of three lesions • inactivation of one memory region makes the other regions perform better —> evidence for competition between systems • all operate simultaneously • more hippocampus activity —> poorer amygdala memory • hippocampus competes with everything - more hippocampal activity impairs other systems • amygdala tends to help the other systems — cooperation • emotional content facilitates recall • corticosteroids act as switch between systems • in stressful conditions (stressor or injection of corticosteroids), behavior SHIFTS to response/habit memory of striatum • LTP: long term potentiation • requires mechanism that recognizes need to store information 3 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • signals to nucleus of cell to make new proteins/synapses • AMPA: sodium channel when opened, sodium enters and depolarizes cell —> AP • • no change, no plasticity • glutamate receptor • NMDA: calcium channel • blocked by magnesium - will only leave with strong depolarization • inputs in other cell regions lots of sodium through AMPA • • multiple enzymes in cell that are activated by calcium • enzymes initiate gene transcription, translation, protein synthesis, etc • genes controlled by these enzymes make new channels, receptors and other things that strengthen synapses • coincidence detector: requires both strong depolarization of post-synaptic cell and neurotransmitter release • BOTH events must occur to open channel • classical conditioning model • change takes place at NMDA receptors at the “weak” synapse between sensory neuron of conditioned stimulus and the motor neuron • 2 main characteristics of LTP: 1. associativity • • 2. synapse specific • in order for LTP to accurately model memory, requires associativity • pairing the LTP synapse at the same time as another causes increase in both • LTP is synapse specific - plasticity of the cell occurs at the synapse • when you LTP one input, LTP doesn’t occur at another input (SELECTIVE) • ERP (event-related potential) changes in endogenous visual attention • exogenous attention is faster • cued visual attention lest • supposed to be looking left or right, then cue will be in either side • can have valid or invalid cues • early components related to visual attention • voltage increases more with valid cues • exogenous attention associated with inhibition of return • some cells orientation selective • attention can modify single-cell activity • enhanced/suppressed respons • sharpen tuning • shift response • default mode network • frontal lobe function: associated with executive function • inhibitory control • working memory • attention • act first, think later • letters presented each second • make decision to push button - but have to pay attention to when you decided to press the button 4 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • subjects showed brain activation in decision making areas and motor cortex BEFORE they consciously knew they were making the decision children asked to judge rhyming words (processing phonemes) • • dyslexic kids showed decreased activity in left inferior parieto-temporal and fusiform face areas • some sensory fibers stay ipsilateral (10%) • can judge extreme temperature just fine, but smaller temperature changes are harder if one side lesioned proximal movement (arms/legs) can be controlled ipsilaterally, but fine motor movements • (distal - finger movement) controlled contralaterally • less motor control of ipsilateral side (if lesion to one side) • in typical readers, planum temporales asymmetric (left side is bigger) • in dyslexics: more symmetric • evolutionarily: at one point, mutation in the left that stopped people processing perceptual groupings • now space freed up for language abilities 5


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.